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Archaeologists and historians are shedding extraordinary new light on one of the most important events in human history -- the horrific battle which gave birth to the
历史学家正在为人类历史上最重要的事件之一揭开新的亮点 - 这场可怕的战争催生了Roman Empire.
.

A detailed study of a unique victory monument, overlooking the sea in northwest
详细研究一个独特的胜利纪念碑,俯瞰西北的海洋Greece, is revealing some of the long-lost secrets of that crucial military engagement -- a great sea battle, fought between
,揭示了这个至关重要的军事交战的一些长期失去的秘密 - 一场伟大的海战,在两者之间展开Julius Caesar's adoptive son and heir, Octavian (who became Rome's first emperor) and Egypt's Queen
他的养子和继承人,屋大维(成为罗马的第一位皇帝)和埃及女王Cleopatra (and her Roman lover, Mark Antony).
(和她的罗马情人马克安东尼)。

The remains of the victory monument still survive adjacent to Nicopolis -- the largest ancient ruined city in Greece.
胜利纪念碑的遗迹仍然存在于尼科波利斯附近 - 希腊最大的古代废墟城市。

We'll tell you what's true. You can form your own view.

From 15p €0.18 $0.18 USD 0.27 a day, more exclusives, analysis and extras.
从15p€0.18 $ 0.18 USD每天0.27,更多独家,分析和额外服务。

Octavian (who received the title Augustus when he became Rome's first emperor) won that crucial naval clash of arms in 31BC -- and, now, more than 2,000 years later, detailed analysis of his great victory monument, overlooking the battle site near the ancient Greek religious sanctuary of Actium, is helping scholars to more fully understand how his world-changing victory was achieved.
屋大维(当他成为罗马的第一位皇帝时获得了奥古斯都的称号)在公元前31年赢得了关键的海军冲突 - 现在,2000多年后,详细分析了他的伟大胜利纪念碑,俯瞰古代附近的战场希腊宗教圣地Actium正在帮助学者们更全面地了解他的改变世界的胜利是如何实现的。

It's always been thought that many of Cleopatra and Mark Antony's ships were bigger than Octavian's -- and were therefore less manoeuvrable.
人们一直认为,许多克利奥帕特拉和马克安东尼的船只比屋大维的大 - 而且因此不那么灵活。

Two action images of the sea battle of Actium -- the clash of arms that gave birth to the Roman Empire
Actium海战的两个动作图像 - 产生罗马帝国的武器冲突

But now crucial archaeological data obtained from the victory monument excavations over recent years has provided the first archaeological confirmation that some of Cleopatra and Mark Antony's ships were indeed unusually large. This would have given Octavian -- who had smaller, faster vessels -- a history-changing advantage. The evidence is also allowing archaeologists to begin to work out the military rationale behind Octavian's battle tactics.
但是,近年来从胜利纪念碑发掘中获得的重要考古数据提供了第一次考古证实,即克利奥帕特拉和马克安东尼的一些船只确实异常庞大。这将使得屋大维 - 拥有更小,更快的船只 - 具有改变历史的优势。证据还允许考古学家开始研究屋大维的战斗策略背后的军事理由。

The crucial data is from a series of around 35 niches set into the front of Octavian's great victory monument. It's known, in part from a first century AD Roman poem, that the niches were made to hold the great bronze marine battering rams from some of Mark Antony and Cleopatra's most important warships.
关键数据来自于Octavian伟大胜利纪念碑前面的一系列约35个壁龛。众所周知,公元一世纪的罗马诗歌中,尼克斯是用马克安东尼和克利奥帕特拉最重要的战舰来制造巨大的青铜海洋殴打公羊。

Octavian captured 350 of their vessels -- and chose the rams of just 35 of them as war trophies for permanent display in his monument to his enemies' defeat.
屋大维占领了他们的350艘船只 - 并选择了其中只有35艘的公羊作为战争奖杯,以便在他的敌人失败的纪念碑中永久展示。

The analysis of the niches (some of which were only excavated in the past two years) has revealed that they are all of different dimensions and had therefore been made to hold specific enemy rams of different shapes and sizes.
对壁龛的分析(其中一些仅在过去两年中被挖掘出来)显示它们具有不同的尺寸,因此被制作成可容纳不同形状和大小的特定敌人公羊。

The Nicopolis city theatre
尼科波利斯市剧院

What's more, the detailed design of some of the niches reveals the vertical dimensions and shapes of the sides of each ram -- and from those details, archaeologists have been able to begin to deduce that the crucial curved horizontal so-called "wale" timbers holding each vessel together (and absorbing the shock of administering ram impacts) were unusually massive. Indeed it is conceivable that some of Antony and Cleopatra's warships were up to 40 metres long.
更重要的是,一些壁龛的详细设计揭示了每个公羊侧面的垂直尺寸和形状 - 从这些细节,考古学家已经能够开始推断出关键的弯曲水平所谓的"wale"木材将每艘船保持在一起(并吸收管理撞击撞击的震动)异常庞大。事实上,可以想象安东尼和克利奥帕特拉的一些战舰长达40米。

It is anticipated that future further analysis of the niche dimensions will reveal additional details about those horizontal timbers and thus also about the amount of force involved in ramming an enemy ship. In turn this will help further advance scholars' understanding of the sheer scale of the military power and capability of the vessels involved.
预计未来对利基尺寸的进一步分析将揭示关于那些水平木材的更多细节,因此也揭示了撞击敌舰所涉及的力量。反过来,这将有助于进一步推动学者对所涉及船只的庞大规模和军事能力的理解。

Up till now, historians and archaeologists have had no real way of beginning to estimate the ramming "firepower" of the vessels involved in the crucial conflict which gave birth to the Roman Empire. The research is likely to enhance historians' appreciation of why Octavian's tactics in this sea battle were designed to prevent Antony and Cleopatra from effectively using their warships' huge ramming capability.
到目前为止,历史学家和考古学家还没有真正的方法来开始估计导致罗马帝国诞生的关键冲突所涉船只的撞击"火力"。这项研究可能会增强历史学家对Octavian在这次海战中的战术为何能够防止Antony和Cleopatra有效利用其战舰巨大的撞击能力的认识。

left Created with Sketch. right Created with Sketch.
left使用Sketch创建。 right使用Sketch创建。

1/34 Florence Mine. Egremont, West Cumbria

Florence Mine in West Cumbria is one of the best-surviving mining sites of any type nationally and is the best-surviving example of an iron mining pit head in England: it retains a full suite of buildings complete with nearly all of its machinery and equipment. From the mid-19th century, iron mining fundamentally altered Western Cumbria and the Furness peninsular, making a significant contribution to the national economy. However, site clearances following industrial decline in the second half of the 20th century, has left few surviving remains of the industry. Florence Mine is believed to have been the last iron mine to close in Europe and was last worked in 2007. Hematite iron ore from the mine is used for the pigment Egremont Red, still found in some lipsticks today. Listed Grade II
位于西坎布里亚郡的佛罗伦萨矿是全国任何类型中存活最多的采矿场之一,也是英格兰铁矿坑头最幸存的例子:它保留了一整套建筑,几乎所有的机械设备都配备齐全。从19世纪中期开始,铁矿开采从根本上改变了西坎布里亚和弗内斯半岛,为国民经济做出了重大贡献。然而,在20世纪下半叶工业衰退之后的场地清理,使该行业的遗存很少。 Florence Mine被认为是最后一个在欧洲关闭的铁矿,并且最后一次在2007年工作。矿山中的赤铁矿铁矿石被用于颜料Egremont Red,今天仍在口红中找到。上市二级

Historic England
Historic England

2/34 University of York, Campus West designed landscape. Heslington, York

The University of York Campus West designed landscape was laid out from 1963-1980 It is a high-quality post-war university landscape that fulfils the architects' masterplan vision of creating a town in miniature with a pedestrianised environment. One of the key features of the landscape is the lake, which has two small islands, a courtyard pool and a fountain which form a central focal point at the heart of the campus. Offering bursts of green against the surrounding concrete structures are the lake features, reed beds and lily pads, which were introduced to improve water purity. The landscape is relatively unaltered since it was laid out and the design successfully integrates the new landscape with the historic Heslington Hall gardens. It was designed by distinguished mid-20th century architects Andrew Derbyshire and Maurice Lee of RMJM with Frank Clark, the co-founders of the Garden History Society (now The Garden Trust). Listed Grade II
约克大学校园西部设计的景观建于1963年至1980年之间。它是一个高质量的战后大学景观,满足了建筑师的总体规划愿景,即在行人环境中创建一个小城镇。这个景观的一个主要特征是湖泊,它有两个小岛,一个庭院游泳池和一个喷泉,形成了校园中心的中心焦点。湖泊特色,芦苇床和睡莲叶被引入以提高水的纯度,为周围的混凝土结构提供了绿色的阵阵。自设计布局以来,景观相对不变,设计成功地将新景观与历史悠久的Heslington Hall花园融为一体。它由着名的20世纪中期建筑师Andrew Derbyshire和RMJM的Maurice Lee与花园历史学会(现为The Garden Trust)的联合创始人Frank Clark共同设计。上市二级

Historic England
Historic England

3/34 University of York, Campus West designed landscape. Heslington, York

The University of York Campus West designed landscape was laid out from 1963-1980 It is a high-quality post-war university landscape that fulfils the architects' masterplan vision of creating a town in miniature with a pedestrianised environment. One of the key features of the landscape is the lake, which has two small islands, a courtyard pool and a fountain which form a central focal point at the heart of the campus. Offering bursts of green against the surrounding concrete structures are the lake features, reed beds and lily pads, which were introduced to improve water purity. The landscape is relatively unaltered since it was laid out and the design successfully integrates the new landscape with the historic Heslington Hall gardens. It was designed by distinguished mid-20th century architects Andrew Derbyshire and Maurice Lee of RMJM with Frank Clark, the co-founders of the Garden History Society (now The Garden Trust). Listed Grade II
约克大学校园西部设计的景观建于1963年至1980年之间。它是一个高质量的战后大学景观,满足了建筑师的总体规划愿景,即在行人环境中创建一个小城镇。这个景观的一个主要特征是湖泊,它有两个小岛,一个庭院游泳池和一个喷泉,形成了校园中心的中心焦点。湖泊特色,芦苇床和睡莲叶被引入以提高水的纯度,为周围的混凝土结构提供了绿色的阵阵。自设计布局以来,景观相对不变,设计成功地将新景观与历史悠久的Heslington Hall花园融为一体。它由着名的20世纪中期建筑师Andrew Derbyshire和RMJM的Maurice Lee与花园历史学会(现为The Garden Trust)的联合创始人Frank Clark共同设计。上市二级

Historic England
Historic England

4/34 30 Coptic Street and 35 Little Russell Street, London

Originally constructed in 1888 for the Dairy Supply Company, 30 Coptic Street and 35 Little Russell Street were once the place of manufacture of the iconic milk churn. It is here that they made 17 gallon galvanised iron containers, designed for transporting milk by rail. The company was heavily associated with George Barnham, who invented the containers and went on to become chair of the British Dairy Farmers Association, Mayor of Hampstead and High Sheriff of Middlesex and was knighted in 1904. The buildings still pay homage to their days as the headquarters of the first major manufacturer of dairy equipment, with its original signage, made of Portland stone, still intact. The exterior features ornate brick decoration which advertised the Dairy Supply Company Limited. Listed Grade II
最初建于1888年的乳品供应公司,30 Coptic Street和35 Little Russell Street曾经是标志性牛奶搅拌器的制造地。在这里,他们制造了17加仑的镀锌铁容器,用于通过铁路运输牛奶。该公司与发明容器的George Barnham密切相关,后来成为英国奶业协会主席,汉普斯特德市市长和米德尔塞克斯高级警长的主席,并于1904年被封为爵士。这些建筑物仍然向他们的日子致敬。第一家主要乳制品设备制造商的总部,其原始标牌由波特兰石材制成,仍然完好无损。外观采用华丽的砖装饰,标志着Dairy Supply Company Limited。上市二级

Historic England
Historic England

5/34 Old Otterington Railway Station. South Otterington, Northallerton, North Yorkshire

Travellers on the East Coast Main Line north of York typically pass the former Otterington Railway Station at over 100 miles per hour. This station building with its signal box was built by the London and North Eastern Railway (LNER) in 1932 as a replacement for the Victorian station that had been cleared away to allow the expansion of the line to four tracks. This was part of LNER's rivalry with the London Midland Scottish Railway in providing ever faster rail services between London and Scotland. Perhaps in deference to more conservative architectural tastes of this part of rural North Yorkshire, the design was carefully moderated with neo-Georgian detailing. The 1930s modernity of Otterington Railway Station however never changed the fact that this was always a sleepy, little-used wayside railway station. It closed to passengers in 1958 and to goods traffic in 1964. It's remarkable survival is owed to its passing into sympathetic private ownership. Listed Grade II
位于约克以北东海岸干线的游客通常以超过每小时100英里的速度经过前奥特林顿火车站。这座带有信号箱的车站大楼于1932年由伦敦和东北铁路公司(LNER)建造,作为维多利亚站的替代品,该站已被清除,允许将线路扩展到四条轨道。这是LNER与伦敦米德兰苏格兰铁路公司竞争的一部分,该公司提供伦敦和苏格兰之间更快的铁路服务。也许是为了尊重北约克郡农村地区更为保守的建筑风格,设计经过了新格鲁吉亚细节的精心调整。然而,20世纪30年代奥特林顿火车站的现代化从未改变过这样一个事实,即它总是一个沉睡,很少使用的路边火车站。它于1958年向乘客关闭,并于1964年关闭货物运输。由于其成为富有同情心的私人所有权,其显着的生存。上市二级

Historic England
Historic England

6/34 University of York, Central Hall. Heslington, York

The University of York was one of seven new universities founded in England between 1958 and 1961. Central Hall is the centrepiece of the University's western campus and has a striking and bold design. The exceptionally detailed development plan behind the campus was heralded as the beginning of contemporary university planning in Britain. The building is a concrete structure with a suspended mild steel tubular roof clad in aluminium, with the upper floors, where the auditorium is located, cantilevered out on the lake sides. It continues a historic tradition established by late 19th century and early 20th century 'red brick' universities in featuring a great hall for special events. Central Hall was designed by Andrew Derbyshire and Maurice Lee of RMJM in 1966-1968 with the notable mid-20th century architects, Stirrat Johnson-Marshall and Andrew Derbyshire. Listed Grade II
约克大学是1958年至1961年间在英格兰成立的七所新大学之一。中央大厅是大学西校区的核心,拥有引人注目的大胆设计。校园背后非常详细的发展计划被预示为英国当代大学规划的开端。该建筑是一个混凝土结构,悬挂的低碳钢管状屋顶由铝制成,上层是礼堂所在地,悬臂在湖面上。它延续了19世纪末和20世纪初"红砖"大学建立的历史传统,设有一个特殊活动的大厅。中央大厅由RMJM的Andrew Derbyshire和Maurice Lee于1966 - 1968年与着名的20世纪中叶建筑师Stirrat Johnson-Marshall和Andrew Derbyshire共同设计。上市二级

Historic England
Historic England

7/34 Pedestrian Subway, Vestibule, Terrace and Stairs beneath Crystal Palace Parade. South London

The Crystal Palace subway, vestibule, terrace and stairs provide an elaborate pedestrian passageway, with finely-crafted Byzantine-style vaulting in red and cream brick and chequered floors in alternating stone. The structure dates from 1865 and was built to link a new train station directly to the entrance of the Crystal Palace. Designed by highly-accomplished architect Charles Barry Junior, the quality of construction is excellent. It is an architecturally imaginative solution to the problem of transporting visitors beneath Crystal Palace Parade and providing a dramatic introduction to the palace itself. The subway's historic interest is with its association with the Great Exhibition, one of the most important cultural events of the Victorian era. The subway was originally listed at Grade II* in 1972 and was upgraded to Grade II this year.
水晶宫地铁,前庭,露台和楼梯提供精心设计的行人通道,精心制作的拜占庭风格的红色和奶油色砖块以及交替石头的方格地板。该建筑的历史可追溯至1865年,旨在将新火车站直接连接至水晶宫的入口。由高度成就的建筑师Charles Barry Junior设计,施工质量非常好。这是一个建筑上富有想象力的解决方案,解决了在Crystal Palace Parade下运送游客的问题,并为宫殿本身提供了戏剧性的介绍。地铁的历史感兴趣在于与伟大展览的联系,这是维多利亚时代最重要的文化活动之一。地铁最初于1972年被列为二级*,今年升级为二级。

Historic England
Historic England

8/34 Pedestrian Subway, Vestibule, Terrace and Stairs beneath Crystal Palace Parade. South London

The Crystal Palace subway, vestibule, terrace and stairs provide an elaborate pedestrian passageway, with finely-crafted Byzantine-style vaulting in red and cream brick and chequered floors in alternating stone. The structure dates from 1865 and was built to link a new train station directly to the entrance of the Crystal Palace. Designed by highly-accomplished architect Charles Barry Junior, the quality of construction is excellent. It is an architecturally imaginative solution to the problem of transporting visitors beneath Crystal Palace Parade and providing a dramatic introduction to the palace itself. The subway's historic interest is with its association with the Great Exhibition, one of the most important cultural events of the Victorian era. The subway was originally listed at Grade II in 1972 and was upgraded to Grade II* this year.
水晶宫地铁,前庭,露台和楼梯提供精心设计的行人通道,精心制作的拜占庭风格的红色和奶油色砖块以及交替石头的方格地板。该建筑的历史可追溯至1865年,旨在将新火车站直接连接至水晶宫的入口。由高度成就的建筑师Charles Barry Junior设计,施工质量非常好。这是一个建筑上富有想象力的解决方案,解决了在Crystal Palace Parade下运送游客的问题,并为宫殿本身提供了戏剧性的介绍。地铁的历史感兴趣在于与伟大展览的联系,这是维多利亚时代最重要的文化活动之一。地铁最初于1972年被列入二级,并于今年升级为二级*。

Historic England
Historic England

9/34 Memorial Bus Shelter. Osmington, Dorset

The thatched memorial bus shelter at Osmington in West Dorset is located on the south side of the A353 and is an important landmark in the village. It dates to around the 1940s and was built by Harry and Ethel Parry-Jones in memory of their son, David, a lieutenant in the 1st Battalion of The Rifle Brigade who died at the age of 20 on 3 August 1944 during the Battle of Normandy. Local materials were used including Purbeck stone and thatch which complements the bus shelter's surroundings. Despite its vulnerability as a piece of street furniture, the bus shelter has not been significantly altered since it was first built. It demonstrates that even modest and functional structures can form eloquent and valuable memorials for their local communities. Listed Grade II
西多塞特郡奥斯明顿的茅草纪念巴士避难所位于A353的南侧,是该村的重要地标。它可以追溯到20世纪40年代左右,由哈利和埃塞尔帕里琼斯为纪念他们的儿子大卫而建,大卫是步枪旅第1营的一名中尉,于1944年8月3日在诺曼底战役期间去世,享年20岁。 。使用当地材料,包括Purbeck石头和茅草屋顶,与公共汽车候车亭的周围环境相得益彰。尽管它作为一件街道设施很脆弱,但自从它首次建造以来,公共汽车候车亭并未发生重大变化。它表明即使是适度和功能性的结构也可以为当地社区形成雄辩而有价值的纪念。上市二级

Historic England
Historic England

10/34 The Assembly Rooms. Charlton

Although modest in scale, the Assembly Rooms building has great presence with its bright, red brick exterior. This charming community hall boasts an exuberant design with its late-19th century, Jacobean Revival style, terracotta tiles and stone detailing. Since its construction in 1881, and despite being damaged in the Second World War, the hall has only seen minor alterations, with the interior retaining its original plan and stage. Unlike other community halls of around this date, which tend to be built on a tighter budget, the Assembly Rooms at Charlton were funded by the wealthy benefactor, Sir Spencer Maryon-Wilson, who lived in the nearby Grade I listed Charlton House. The rich decoration of the Assembly Rooms features his family Coat of Arms, along with terracotta panels embellished with floral motifs, and is a good example of the impact of Victorian philanthropy on this simple building type. Listed Grade II
虽然规模适中,但会议室大楼的外观却很明亮,红砖外观很大。这个迷人的社区大厅拥有充满活力的设计,其19世纪后期,雅各布复兴风格,赤陶瓷砖和石头细节。自1881年建造以来,尽管在第二次世界大战中遭到破坏,但大厅只看到了微小的改动,内部保留了原有的计划和舞台。与此日期的其他社区大厅不同,这些大厅通常建立在更紧凑的预算之上,查尔顿的会议室由富有的恩人斯宾塞玛丽安 - 威尔逊爵士资助,他住在附近的一级保险公司Charlton House。装配室的丰富装饰以他的家族徽章为特色,以及装饰有花卉图案的陶土板,是维多利亚慈善事业对这种简单建筑类型的影响的一个很好的例子。上市二级

Historic England
Historic England

11/34 The Assembly Rooms. Charlton

Although modest in scale, the Assembly Rooms building has great presence with its bright, red brick exterior. This charming community hall boasts an exuberant design with its late-19th century, Jacobean Revival style, terracotta tiles and stone detailing. Since its construction in 1881, and despite being damaged in the Second World War, the hall has only seen minor alterations, with the interior retaining its original plan and stage. Unlike other community halls of around this date, which tend to be built on a tighter budget, the Assembly Rooms at Charlton were funded by the wealthy benefactor, Sir Spencer Maryon-Wilson, who lived in the nearby Grade I listed Charlton House. The rich decoration of the Assembly Rooms features his family Coat of Arms, along with terracotta panels embellished with floral motifs, and is a good example of the impact of Victorian philanthropy on this simple building type. Listed Grade II
虽然规模适中,但会议室大楼的外观却很明亮,红砖外观很大。这个迷人的社区大厅拥有充满活力的设计,其19世纪后期,雅各布复兴风格,赤陶瓷砖和石头细节。自1881年建造以来,尽管在第二次世界大战中遭到破坏,但大厅只看到了微小的改动,内部保留了原有的计划和舞台。与此日期的其他社区大厅不同,这些大厅通常建立在更紧凑的预算之上,查尔顿的会议室由富有的恩人斯宾塞玛丽安 - 威尔逊爵士资助,他住在附近的一级保险公司Charlton House。装配室的丰富装饰以他的家族徽章为特色,以及装饰有花卉图案的陶土板,是维多利亚慈善事业对这种简单建筑类型的影响的一个很好的例子。上市二级

Historic England
Historic England

12/34 St John the Baptist Church, boundary walls, vicarage and school. Pendeen, Cornwall

The parish of Pendeen in Cornwall was established in 1846, and its first vicar, Reverend Robert Aitken, was tasked to provide a church for the community. Aitken was renowned for his unusual preaching style and this was deemed to be well-suited to pull people away from the dominance of Methodism in the county's mining communities. Aitken took it upon himself to design the church, the neighbouring vicarage and school, using local materials. Many of the fixtures and fittings were also made by local craftspeople, and Aitken donated his own collection of 16th century and 17th century Flemish and German glass roundels to enhance the windows. From 1850 until 1852, the predominantly-mining community worked to quarry stone from Carn Earnes, the hill above the church, in order to build the church and its boundary walls. Listed Grade II
康沃尔郡的Pendeen教区成立于1846年,其第一位教区牧师罗伯特·艾特肯(Robert Aitken)的任务是为社区提供一座教堂。 Aitken以其不同寻常的讲道风格而闻名,这被认为非常适合让人们远离该县采矿社区的卫理公会主义。 Aitken利用当地材料自己设计了教堂,邻近的牧师和学校。许多固定装置和配件也是由当地工匠制作的,Aitken捐赠了他自己的16世纪和17世纪的佛兰芒和德国玻璃圆盘,以增强窗户。从1850年到1852年,主要采矿社区致力于从教堂上方的山上的Carn Earnes采石,以建造教堂及其边界墙。上市二级

Historic England
Historic England

13/34 St John the Baptist Church, boundary walls, vicarage and school. Pendeen, Cornwall

The parish of Pendeen in Cornwall was established in 1846, and its first vicar, Reverend Robert Aitken, was tasked to provide a church for the community. Aitken was renowned for his unusual preaching style and this was deemed to be well-suited to pull people away from the dominance of Methodism in the county's mining communities. Aitken took it upon himself to design the church, the neighbouring vicarage and school, using local materials. Many of the fixtures and fittings were also made by local craftspeople, and Aitken donated his own collection of 16th century and 17th century Flemish and German glass roundels to enhance the windows. From 1850 until 1852, the predominantly-mining community worked to quarry stone from Carn Earnes, the hill above the church, in order to build the church and its boundary walls. Listed Grade II
康沃尔郡的Pendeen教区成立于1846年,其第一位教区牧师罗伯特·艾特肯(Robert Aitken)的任务是为社区提供一座教堂。 Aitken以其不同寻常的讲道风格而闻名,这被认为非常适合让人们远离该县采矿社区的卫理公会主义。 Aitken利用当地材料自己设计了教堂,邻近的牧师和学校。许多固定装置和配件也是由当地工匠制作的,Aitken捐赠了他自己的16世纪和17世纪的佛兰芒和德国玻璃圆盘,以增强窗户。从1850年到1852年,主要采矿社区致力于从教堂上方的山上的Carn Earnes采石,以建造教堂及其边界墙。上市二级

Historic England
Historic England

14/34 Cricket Pavilion. Uppingham School, Rutland

Sir Walter John Tapper, a notable architect with many listed buildings to his name, was commissioned by Uppingham School to follow the tradition of public schools and universities investing in cricket pavilions. Uppingham School's pavilion has a deep thatched roof which sweeps low over the eaves and together with the stone windows with leaded lights, they combine to create a picturesque and well-proportioned design. Its interior has finely detailed features such as the delicate leaf-like plasterwork on the ceiling and ornate ironmongery on the windows. The principal room of the pavilion is lined with square panelling which is inscribed with the names of cricket players dating back to 1856, some of whom went on to become internationally renowned including Percy Chapman who captained the England cricket team and cricket broadcaster Jonathan Agnew MBE. Listed Grade II
沃尔特约翰塔佩尔爵士是一位着名的建筑师,他的名字中有许多受保护的建筑物,受到Uppingham学校的委托,遵循公立学校和大学投资板球馆的传统。 Uppingham学校的凉亭有一个深深的茅草屋顶,屋檐低矮,与带有含铅灯的石窗一起,形成了一个风景如画,匀称的设计。其内部拥有精致细节的特征,如天花板上精致的叶状灰泥和窗户上华丽的五金制品。展馆的主要房间内衬有方形镶板,上面刻有可追溯到1856年的板球运动员的名字,其中一些人继续成为国际知名人士,包括英国板球队和板球广播员Jonathan Agnew MBE队长的Percy Chapman。上市二级

Historic England
Historic England

15/34 Cricket Pavilion. Uppingham School, Rutland

Sir Walter John Tapper, a notable architect with many listed buildings to his name, was commissioned by Uppingham School to follow the tradition of public schools and universities investing in cricket pavilions. Uppingham School's pavilion has a deep thatched roof which sweeps low over the eaves and together with the stone windows with leaded lights, they combine to create a picturesque and well-proportioned design. Its interior has finely detailed features such as the delicate leaf-like plasterwork on the ceiling and ornate ironmongery on the windows. The principal room of the pavilion is lined with square panelling which is inscribed with the names of cricket players dating back to 1856, some of whom went on to become internationally renowned including Percy Chapman who captained the England cricket team and cricket broadcaster Jonathan Agnew MBE. Listed Grade II
沃尔特约翰塔佩尔爵士是一位着名的建筑师,他的名字中有许多受保护的建筑物,受到Uppingham学校的委托,遵循公立学校和大学投资板球馆的传统。 Uppingham学校的凉亭有一个深深的茅草屋顶,屋檐低矮,与带有含铅灯的石窗一起,形成了一个风景如画,匀称的设计。其内部拥有精致细节的特征,如天花板上精致的叶状灰泥和窗户上华丽的五金制品。展馆的主要房间内衬有方形镶板,上面刻有可追溯到1856年的板球运动员的名字,其中一些人继续成为国际知名人士,包括英国板球队和板球广播员Jonathan Agnew MBE队长的Percy Chapman。上市二级

Historic England
Historic England

16/34 The Cock Sign. Sutton High Street

The Cock Sign stands at a prominent location at the junction of Sutton High Street and Carshalton Road. It dates to around 1907 and originates from a pub called The Cock which was located at a junction known as The Cock Cross Roads and owned by 'Gentleman Jackson' (1769-1845), a celebrated English boxer who won the title 'Champion of England.' The Cock is a tall structure which was originally a grand gas lamp-post and pub sign, later converted to electricity and then to a road sign with multiple finger posts. It has been moved a few metres from its original location outside the Cock Hotel which is now demolished. The changes made to the sign over the years contribute to its special interest in helping to tell the story of Sutton High Street and how the town changed during the late 19th century and early 20th century. The sign was produced by the manufacturer Hart, Son, Peard and Co, who supplied some of the leading architects and designers of the day. Listed Grade II
Cock Sign位于Sutton High Street和Carshalton Road交汇处的显眼位置。它的历史可以追溯到1907年左右,起源于一家名为The Cock的酒吧,该酒吧位于一个名为The Cock Cross Roads的交界处,由着名的英国拳击手'Gentleman Jackson'(1769-1845)所有,他赢得了英国冠军头衔"。公鸡是一个高大的结构,原本是一个巨大的煤气灯柱和酒吧标志,后来转换为电力,然后转为具有多个指柱的道路标志。它已经从位于Cock Hotel酒店外的原始位置移动了几米,现在已被拆除。多年来对标志的改变使其特别有兴趣讲述萨顿大街的故事以及19世纪末20世纪初小镇的变化。该标志由制造商Hart,Son,Peard和Co制作,他们提供了当时一些领先的建筑师和设计师。上市二级

Historic England
Historic England

17/34 The Cock Sign. Sutton High Street

The Cock Sign stands at a prominent location at the junction of Sutton High Street and Carshalton Road. It dates to around 1907 and originates from a pub called The Cock which was located at a junction known as The Cock Cross Roads and owned by 'Gentleman Jackson' (1769-1845), a celebrated English boxer who won the title 'Champion of England.' The Cock is a tall structure which was originally a grand gas lamp-post and pub sign, later converted to electricity and then to a road sign with multiple finger posts. It has been moved a few metres from its original location outside the Cock Hotel which is now demolished. The changes made to the sign over the years contribute to its special interest in helping to tell the story of Sutton High Street and how the town changed during the late 19th century and early 20th century. The sign was produced by the manufacturer Hart, Son, Peard and Co, who supplied some of the leading architects and designers of the day. Listed Grade II
Cock Sign位于Sutton High Street和Carshalton Road交汇处的显眼位置。它的历史可以追溯到1907年左右,起源于一家名为The Cock的酒吧,该酒吧位于一个名为The Cock Cross Roads的交界处,由着名的英国拳击手'Gentleman Jackson'(1769-1845)所有,他赢得了英国冠军头衔"。公鸡是一个高大的结构,原本是一个巨大的煤气灯柱和酒吧标志,后来转换为电力,然后转为具有多个指柱的道路标志。它已经从位于Cock Hotel酒店外的原始位置移动了几米,现在已被拆除。多年来对标志的改变使其特别有兴趣讲述萨顿大街的故事以及19世纪末20世纪初小镇的变化。该标志由制造商Hart,Son,Peard和Co制作,他们提供了当时一些领先的建筑师和设计师。上市二级

Historic England
Historic England

18/34 East Mellwaters. County Durham

This walled settlement at East Mellwaters is a rare form of late prehistoric settlement. Traditionally, in Northern England, Iron Age and Romano-British native settlements take a variety of forms, with enclosures being defined by a bank and a ditch. Higher status enclosures, however, were formed of stone and have now been reduced to stony earthworks, as at East Mellwaters. The site is adjacent to other prehistoric settlement remains, which are thought to represent a succession of settlement sites established over the centuries. Scheduled Monument

19/34 Hopkins House. Hampstead

Architects Michael and Patty Hopkins built the house as a family home in 1975-1976, which also served as their office until the early 1980s. The couple designed and constructed the house as a study in making use of the maximum, flexible space of the site and were influenced by the Eames Case Study House of 1949. The house is notable for its energy efficiency, which includes the low thermal demands of the house, sparing use of materials and Venetian blinds. The highly elegant and economic lightweight steel frame and glass building made in the High-Tech tradition, is particularly eye-catching amongst the Victorian mansions typical of Hampstead and the Regency villas that make Downshire Hill distinctive from the rest of the village. The house won an RIBA award in 1977 and a Civic Trust Award in 1979. The couple jointly won the RIBA Gold Medal in 1994 and Michael Hopkins went on to receive a knighthood for his achievements in 1995. Listed Grade II

Historic England
Historic England

20/34 74 Dyer Street. Cirencester, Gloucestershire

The former office of the Wiltshire and Gloucestershire Standard. The Wiltshire and Gloucestershire Standard was founded in Malmesbury in 1837 and its production moved to Cirencester in 1840. It has continued to bring local news to the people of the two counties ever since. In 1904 the paper's owner, George Henry Harmer, who had worked his way up through the firm from reporter to proprietor, sought to unite the printing and publishing arms of the paper on the same site for the first time, and commissioned local architect VA Lawson to design a new publishing office on a narrow site in Dyer Street, retaining the existing printing sheds to the rear. The resulting three-storey building has an imposing presence in a street of otherwise modest Cotswold buildings. It is in an Arts and Crafts style, taller than its neighbours, with jetties which project the elaborate timber-framed upper floors out over the street. Listed Grade II

Historic England
Historic England

21/34 Wing Test Hangars. Rolls-Royce Hucknall, Nottinghamshire

In 1934, Rolls Royce leased two hangars at the Hucknall airfield, which was established in 1917, and created a testing programme there for aero engines and equipment. The building is largely intact and features many surviving fixtures dating back to the mid-20th century, including an engine-testing control panel, observation windows, wing spar mount assembly, roller doors, pierced metal sheet lining, as well as fittings and support for a de-tuner. The site saw many world-leading developments such as the Merlin Engine, which was tested, developed and adapted for the American Mustang fighter aircraft there. The world's first flight of a commercial jet aircraft flew from Hucknall to the Paris Air show in the late 1940s, using Frank Whittle's jet engine which had been developed on site. Listed Grade II

Historic England
Historic England

22/34 Wing Test Hangars. Rolls-Royce Hucknall, Nottinghamshire

In 1934, Rolls Royce leased two hangars at the Hucknall airfield, which was established in 1917, and created a testing programme there for aero engines and equipment. The building is largely intact and features many surviving fixtures dating back to the mid-20th century, including an engine-testing control panel, observation windows, wing spar mount assembly, roller doors, pierced metal sheet lining, as well as fittings and support for a de-tuner. The site saw many world-leading developments such as the Merlin Engine, which was tested, developed and adapted for the American Mustang fighter aircraft there. The world's first flight of a commercial jet aircraft flew from Hucknall to the Paris Air show in the late 1940s, using Frank Whittle's jet engine which had been developed on site. Listed Grade II

Historic England
Historic England

23/34 Lych gate to the east of Church of St John the Evangelist. Newcastle on Clun, Shropshire

The lych gate to the east of Church of St John the Evangelist in Newcastle on Clun dates from 1880 and forms a picturesque entrance to St John's churchyard. The design follows the Arts and Crafts traditions, bringing together joinery, ironmongery and slate work and is inspired by medieval predecessors. The roof mimics that of the lych gate claimed to be the oldest in the country, at the Church of St George in Beckenham, Kent, originally constructed in the 13th century. Within the timber-framed passageway of the lych gate is a revolving gate, which is an unusual feature and one of only a handful in existence in England. 'Lych' derives from the Anglo-Saxon or German word for corpse, and is named after the structure's primary function of storing the coffin before burial. Lych gates also serve as a meeting point and shelter for funeral parties before they are met by the priest. Listed Grade II

Historic England
Historic England

24/34 Tidal Observatory. Newlyn, Cornwall

The fishing industry in Newlyn on the south coast of Cornwall expanded in the 1880s, resulting in the construction of a new harbour and two piers. In the early 20th century, the south pier was extended to give better protection to the harbour and a tidal observatory was built at its north end. The observatory was one of three constructed at the request of Ordnance Survey to establish Mean Sea Level. With the observatory being completed in 1914, hourly measurements were taken of the height of the tide between 1915 and 1921, determining that Newlyn was the most stable and therefore the principal place to establish Mean Sea Level for the entire country. Over the next 100 years, the observatory contributed key tidal data to studies in oceanography, geology and climate change. Listed Grade II

Historic England
Historic England

25/34 Old Lifeboat House. Walton-on-the-Naze, Essex

The former lifeboat house, built in 1884, was designed by CH Cooke and represents the crucial role played by the Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI) in saving lives at sea since the 19th century. Its wide gabled structure and ornamental treatment, made up of fish-scale tiling, decorative moulded brick, and a beautifully incorporated bay window, create a finely detailed and strikingly composed building. The local community played an important part in raising funds for the site, which housed Walton's first lifeboat, a 37ft 'self-righter' Norfolk/ Suffolk class 'sailing & pulling' lifeboat, a design suited to the East coast's shallow waters. Baroness Bolsover launched the boat in a ceremony, held in Walton, on 18 November 1884 outside the new Lifeboat House where the boat had recently arrived by train. Listed Grade II

Historic England
Historic England

26/34 Cattle Trough and Drinking Fountain. Spaniards Road, Hampstead

Cattle troughs were once commonplace in Britain, with the Metropolitan Drinking Fountain and Cattle Trough Association (MDFCTA) responsible for over 1000 of them. Around 500 of these were located in London, however a large number have now been lost. The trough in Spaniards Road was believed to have been erected in 1916, making it a particularly late example of its type. Although the pump and spout mechanism are missing, the cattle trough is an important reminder that horse-drawn transport was commonplace in the early 20th century, despite the increasing use of motorised transport. In providing free drinking water for horses, charities like the MDFCTA also played an important role in raising standards in animal welfare. Listed Grade II

Historic England
Historic England

27/34 Caynton Manor Gatehouse. Newport, Shropshire

This early 17th century gatehouse to the former Caynton Manor is a remarkable survival, previously undiscovered. Originally a formal gateway to a wealthy country house, it has been used for agricultural purposes since the 18th century. While very little is known about the house which the gatehouse served, the quality of the gatehouse signifies a substantial building of high status. It is a well-proportioned building with a red sandstone base, a tiled roof and good quality detailing, characteristic of this building type at the time it was built, around 1635. Of particular interest is the carved detailing around the archways and the elaborate plasterwork in the principal rooms inside the gatehouse. This listing means that it can now be assessed for inclusion on Historic England's Heritage at Risk Register, which would enable Historic England to offer specialist technical advice to help secure its future. Listed Grade II*

Historic England
Historic England

28/34 Caynton Manor Gatehouse. Newport, Shropshire

This early 17th century gatehouse to the former Caynton Manor is a remarkable survival, previously undiscovered. Originally a formal gateway to a wealthy country house, it has been used for agricultural purposes since the 18th century. While very little is known about the house which the gatehouse served, the quality of the gatehouse signifies a substantial building of high status. It is a well-proportioned building with a red sandstone base, a tiled roof and good quality detailing, characteristic of this building type at the time it was built, around 1635. Of particular interest is the carved detailing around the archways and the elaborate plasterwork in the principal rooms inside the gatehouse. This listing means that it can now be assessed for inclusion on Historic England's Heritage at Risk Register, which would enable Historic England to offer specialist technical advice to help secure its future. Listed Grade II*

Historic England
Historic England

29/34 Garden at Kingcombe. Chipping Camden, Gloucestershire

The garden at Kingcombe complements Grade II listed Kingcombe House. It is an increasingly rare survival of an Arts and Crafts garden laid out in the 1930s. The pre-war garden is well-preserved and is an impressive and thoughtful design which includes Italian influences in the terraced garden including Italian steps to divide it from the more functional parts of the garden and to provide a vertical link from the top of the terraces to the meadow beyond the garden. Intact gardens dating from the 1930s are rare in England. It was designed initially by Sir Geoffrey Jellicoe and Russell Page with Sir Gordon Russell between 1927 and 1936 with later additions by Sir Gordon Russell from the 1940s through to the 1970s. During the Second World War and the austerity years that followed, few private houses were built so commissions for new gardens were few and far between. Grade II Registered Park and Garden

Historic England
Historic England

30/34 Garden at Kingcombe. Chipping Camden, Gloucestershire

The garden at Kingcombe complements Grade II listed Kingcombe House. It is an increasingly rare survival of an Arts and Crafts garden laid out in the 1930s. The pre-war garden is well-preserved and is an impressive and thoughtful design which includes Italian influences in the terraced garden including Italian steps to divide it from the more functional parts of the garden and to provide a vertical link from the top of the terraces to the meadow beyond the garden. Intact gardens dating from the 1930s are rare in England. It was designed initially by Sir Geoffrey Jellicoe and Russell Page with Sir Gordon Russell between 1927 and 1936 with later additions by Sir Gordon Russell from the 1940s through to the 1970s. During the Second World War and the austerity years that followed, few private houses were built so commissions for new gardens were few and far between. Grade II Registered Park and Garden

Historic England
Historic England

31/34 Robin Hood and his Merry Men. Castle Place, Nottingham

Acclaimed sculptor and Nottingham native, James Arthur Woodford RA OBE was commissioned to craft this imaginative group of sculptures, depicting the legendary characters of Robin Hood and his Merry Men, to commemorate the visit of their Royal Highnesses the Princess Elizabeth and the Duke of Edinburgh for the city's quincentenary celebrations in 1949. Woodford conceived the group of sculptures to occupy the land in the outer ditch of Nottingham Castle, the setting of one of the most popular legendary tales of Robin Hood. The sculptures form a significant group with the Grade I listed Nottingham Castle. Listed Grade II

Historic England
Historic England

32/34 Robin Hood and his Merry Men. Castle Place, Nottingham

Acclaimed sculptor and Nottingham native, James Arthur Woodford RA OBE was commissioned to craft this imaginative group of sculptures, depicting the legendary characters of Robin Hood and his Merry Men, to commemorate the visit of their Royal Highnesses the Princess Elizabeth and the Duke of Edinburgh for the city's quincentenary celebrations in 1949. Woodford conceived the group of sculptures to occupy the land in the outer ditch of Nottingham Castle, the setting of one of the most popular legendary tales of Robin Hood. The sculptures form a significant group with the Grade I listed Nottingham Castle. Listed Grade II

Historic England
Historic England

33/34 Cappleside Barn. Rathmell, North Yorkshire

Cappleside Barn in Ribblesdale, North Yorkshire was built in 1714. It is a large barn with a remarkable ornamental roof structure with carefully shaped timbers that also include carved motifs such as 'daisy-wheels'. At first, Historic England thought that these roof timbers had been reused from a high-status medieval house, but dendrochronology has shown that the timbers came from trees felled shortly before the construction of the barn. The barn, with a cutting-edge design for its time, includes integrated housing for cows which allowed more cattle to be kept over the winter, increasing herd sizes and farming prosperity. To protect this investment, 18th century belief systems saw the use of witches' marks or special carved motifs placed near openings to ward off witches and evil spirits. Listed Grade II*

Historic England
Historic England

34/34 Cappleside Barn. Rathmell, North Yorkshire

Cappleside Barn in Ribblesdale, North Yorkshire was built in 1714. It is a large barn with a remarkable ornamental roof structure with carefully shaped timbers that also include carved motifs such as 'daisy-wheels'. At first, Historic England thought that these roof timbers had been reused from a high-status medieval house, but dendrochronology has shown that the timbers came from trees felled shortly before the construction of the barn. The barn, with a cutting-edge design for its time, includes integrated housing for cows which allowed more cattle to be kept over the winter, increasing herd sizes and farming prosperity. To protect this investment, 18th century belief systems saw the use of witches' marks or special carved motifs placed near openings to ward off witches and evil spirits. Listed Grade II*

Historic England
Historic England

1/34 Florence Mine. Egremont, West Cumbria

Florence Mine in West Cumbria is one of the best-surviving mining sites of any type nationally and is the best-surviving example of an iron mining pit head in England: it retains a full suite of buildings complete with nearly all of its machinery and equipment. From the mid-19th century, iron mining fundamentally altered Western Cumbria and the Furness peninsular, making a significant contribution to the national economy. However, site clearances following industrial decline in the second half of the 20th century, has left few surviving remains of the industry. Florence Mine is believed to have been the last iron mine to close in Europe and was last worked in 2007. Hematite iron ore from the mine is used for the pigment Egremont Red, still found in some lipsticks today. Listed Grade II

Historic England
Historic England

2/34 University of York, Campus West designed landscape. Heslington, York

The University of York Campus West designed landscape was laid out from 1963-1980 It is a high-quality post-war university landscape that fulfils the architects' masterplan vision of creating a town in miniature with a pedestrianised environment. One of the key features of the landscape is the lake, which has two small islands, a courtyard pool and a fountain which form a central focal point at the heart of the campus. Offering bursts of green against the surrounding concrete structures are the lake features, reed beds and lily pads, which were introduced to improve water purity. The landscape is relatively unaltered since it was laid out and the design successfully integrates the new landscape with the historic Heslington Hall gardens. It was designed by distinguished mid-20th century architects Andrew Derbyshire and Maurice Lee of RMJM with Frank Clark, the co-founders of the Garden History Society (now The Garden Trust). Listed Grade II

Historic England
Historic England

3/34 University of York, Campus West designed landscape. Heslington, York

The University of York Campus West designed landscape was laid out from 1963-1980 It is a high-quality post-war university landscape that fulfils the architects' masterplan vision of creating a town in miniature with a pedestrianised environment. One of the key features of the landscape is the lake, which has two small islands, a courtyard pool and a fountain which form a central focal point at the heart of the campus. Offering bursts of green against the surrounding concrete structures are the lake features, reed beds and lily pads, which were introduced to improve water purity. The landscape is relatively unaltered since it was laid out and the design successfully integrates the new landscape with the historic Heslington Hall gardens. It was designed by distinguished mid-20th century architects Andrew Derbyshire and Maurice Lee of RMJM with Frank Clark, the co-founders of the Garden History Society (now The Garden Trust). Listed Grade II

Historic England
Historic England

4/34 30 Coptic Street and 35 Little Russell Street, London

Originally constructed in 1888 for the Dairy Supply Company, 30 Coptic Street and 35 Little Russell Street were once the place of manufacture of the iconic milk churn. It is here that they made 17 gallon galvanised iron containers, designed for transporting milk by rail. The company was heavily associated with George Barnham, who invented the containers and went on to become chair of the British Dairy Farmers Association, Mayor of Hampstead and High Sheriff of Middlesex and was knighted in 1904. The buildings still pay homage to their days as the headquarters of the first major manufacturer of dairy equipment, with its original signage, made of Portland stone, still intact. The exterior features ornate brick decoration which advertised the Dairy Supply Company Limited. Listed Grade II

Historic England
Historic England

5/34 Old Otterington Railway Station. South Otterington, Northallerton, North Yorkshire

Travellers on the East Coast Main Line north of York typically pass the former Otterington Railway Station at over 100 miles per hour. This station building with its signal box was built by the London and North Eastern Railway (LNER) in 1932 as a replacement for the Victorian station that had been cleared away to allow the expansion of the line to four tracks. This was part of LNER's rivalry with the London Midland Scottish Railway in providing ever faster rail services between London and Scotland. Perhaps in deference to more conservative architectural tastes of this part of rural North Yorkshire, the design was carefully moderated with neo-Georgian detailing. The 1930s modernity of Otterington Railway Station however never changed the fact that this was always a sleepy, little-used wayside railway station. It closed to passengers in 1958 and to goods traffic in 1964. It's remarkable survival is owed to its passing into sympathetic private ownership. Listed Grade II

Historic England
Historic England

6/34 University of York, Central Hall. Heslington, York

The University of York was one of seven new universities founded in England between 1958 and 1961. Central Hall is the centrepiece of the University's western campus and has a striking and bold design. The exceptionally detailed development plan behind the campus was heralded as the beginning of contemporary university planning in Britain. The building is a concrete structure with a suspended mild steel tubular roof clad in aluminium, with the upper floors, where the auditorium is located, cantilevered out on the lake sides. It continues a historic tradition established by late 19th century and early 20th century 'red brick' universities in featuring a great hall for special events. Central Hall was designed by Andrew Derbyshire and Maurice Lee of RMJM in 1966-1968 with the notable mid-20th century architects, Stirrat Johnson-Marshall and Andrew Derbyshire. Listed Grade II

Historic England
Historic England

7/34 Pedestrian Subway, Vestibule, Terrace and Stairs beneath Crystal Palace Parade. South London

The Crystal Palace subway, vestibule, terrace and stairs provide an elaborate pedestrian passageway, with finely-crafted Byzantine-style vaulting in red and cream brick and chequered floors in alternating stone. The structure dates from 1865 and was built to link a new train station directly to the entrance of the Crystal Palace. Designed by highly-accomplished architect Charles Barry Junior, the quality of construction is excellent. It is an architecturally imaginative solution to the problem of transporting visitors beneath Crystal Palace Parade and providing a dramatic introduction to the palace itself. The subway's historic interest is with its association with the Great Exhibition, one of the most important cultural events of the Victorian era. The subway was originally listed at Grade II* in 1972 and was upgraded to Grade II this year.

Historic England
Historic England

8/34 Pedestrian Subway, Vestibule, Terrace and Stairs beneath Crystal Palace Parade. South London

The Crystal Palace subway, vestibule, terrace and stairs provide an elaborate pedestrian passageway, with finely-crafted Byzantine-style vaulting in red and cream brick and chequered floors in alternating stone. The structure dates from 1865 and was built to link a new train station directly to the entrance of the Crystal Palace. Designed by highly-accomplished architect Charles Barry Junior, the quality of construction is excellent. It is an architecturally imaginative solution to the problem of transporting visitors beneath Crystal Palace Parade and providing a dramatic introduction to the palace itself. The subway's historic interest is with its association with the Great Exhibition, one of the most important cultural events of the Victorian era. The subway was originally listed at Grade II in 1972 and was upgraded to Grade II* this year.

Historic England
Historic England

9/34 Memorial Bus Shelter. Osmington, Dorset

The thatched memorial bus shelter at Osmington in West Dorset is located on the south side of the A353 and is an important landmark in the village. It dates to around the 1940s and was built by Harry and Ethel Parry-Jones in memory of their son, David, a lieutenant in the 1st Battalion of The Rifle Brigade who died at the age of 20 on 3 August 1944 during the Battle of Normandy. Local materials were used including Purbeck stone and thatch which complements the bus shelter's surroundings. Despite its vulnerability as a piece of street furniture, the bus shelter has not been significantly altered since it was first built. It demonstrates that even modest and functional structures can form eloquent and valuable memorials for their local communities. Listed Grade II

Historic England
Historic England

10/34 The Assembly Rooms. Charlton

Although modest in scale, the Assembly Rooms building has great presence with its bright, red brick exterior. This charming community hall boasts an exuberant design with its late-19th century, Jacobean Revival style, terracotta tiles and stone detailing. Since its construction in 1881, and despite being damaged in the Second World War, the hall has only seen minor alterations, with the interior retaining its original plan and stage. Unlike other community halls of around this date, which tend to be built on a tighter budget, the Assembly Rooms at Charlton were funded by the wealthy benefactor, Sir Spencer Maryon-Wilson, who lived in the nearby Grade I listed Charlton House. The rich decoration of the Assembly Rooms features his family Coat of Arms, along with terracotta panels embellished with floral motifs, and is a good example of the impact of Victorian philanthropy on this simple building type. Listed Grade II

Historic England
Historic England

11/34 The Assembly Rooms. Charlton

Although modest in scale, the Assembly Rooms building has great presence with its bright, red brick exterior. This charming community hall boasts an exuberant design with its late-19th century, Jacobean Revival style, terracotta tiles and stone detailing. Since its construction in 1881, and despite being damaged in the Second World War, the hall has only seen minor alterations, with the interior retaining its original plan and stage. Unlike other community halls of around this date, which tend to be built on a tighter budget, the Assembly Rooms at Charlton were funded by the wealthy benefactor, Sir Spencer Maryon-Wilson, who lived in the nearby Grade I listed Charlton House. The rich decoration of the Assembly Rooms features his family Coat of Arms, along with terracotta panels embellished with floral motifs, and is a good example of the impact of Victorian philanthropy on this simple building type. Listed Grade II

Historic England
Historic England

12/34 St John the Baptist Church, boundary walls, vicarage and school. Pendeen, Cornwall

The parish of Pendeen in Cornwall was established in 1846, and its first vicar, Reverend Robert Aitken, was tasked to provide a church for the community. Aitken was renowned for his unusual preaching style and this was deemed to be well-suited to pull people away from the dominance of Methodism in the county's mining communities. Aitken took it upon himself to design the church, the neighbouring vicarage and school, using local materials. Many of the fixtures and fittings were also made by local craftspeople, and Aitken donated his own collection of 16th century and 17th century Flemish and German glass roundels to enhance the windows. From 1850 until 1852, the predominantly-mining community worked to quarry stone from Carn Earnes, the hill above the church, in order to build the church and its boundary walls. Listed Grade II
康沃尔郡的Pendeen教区成立于1846年,其第一位教区牧师罗伯特·艾特肯(Robert Aitken)的任务是为社区提供一座教堂。 Aitken以其不同寻常的讲道风格而闻名,这被认为非常适合让人们远离该县采矿社区的卫理公会主义。 Aitken利用当地材料自己设计了教堂,邻近的牧师和学校。许多固定装置和配件也是由当地工匠制作的,Aitken捐赠了他自己的16世纪和17世纪的佛兰芒和德国玻璃圆盘,以增强窗户。从1850年到1852年,主要采矿社区致力于从教堂上方的山上的Carn Earnes采石,以建造教堂及其边界墙。上市二级

Historic England
Historic England

13/34 St John the Baptist Church, boundary walls, vicarage and school. Pendeen, Cornwall

The parish of Pendeen in Cornwall was established in 1846, and its first vicar, Reverend Robert Aitken, was tasked to provide a church for the community. Aitken was renowned for his unusual preaching style and this was deemed to be well-suited to pull people away from the dominance of Methodism in the county's mining communities. Aitken took it upon himself to design the church, the neighbouring vicarage and school, using local materials. Many of the fixtures and fittings were also made by local craftspeople, and Aitken donated his own collection of 16th century and 17th century Flemish and German glass roundels to enhance the windows. From 1850 until 1852, the predominantly-mining community worked to quarry stone from Carn Earnes, the hill above the church, in order to build the church and its boundary walls. Listed Grade II
康沃尔郡的Pendeen教区成立于1846年,其第一位教区牧师罗伯特·艾特肯(Robert Aitken)的任务是为社区提供一座教堂。 Aitken以其不同寻常的讲道风格而闻名,这被认为非常适合让人们远离该县采矿社区的卫理公会主义。 Aitken利用当地材料自己设计了教堂,邻近的牧师和学校。许多固定装置和配件也是由当地工匠制作的,Aitken捐赠了他自己的16世纪和17世纪的佛兰芒和德国玻璃圆盘,以增强窗户。从1850年到1852年,主要采矿社区致力于从教堂上方的山上的Carn Earnes采石,以建造教堂及其边界墙。上市二级

Historic England
Historic England

14/34 Cricket Pavilion. Uppingham School, Rutland

Sir Walter John Tapper, a notable architect with many listed buildings to his name, was commissioned by Uppingham School to follow the tradition of public schools and universities investing in cricket pavilions. Uppingham School's pavilion has a deep thatched roof which sweeps low over the eaves and together with the stone windows with leaded lights, they combine to create a picturesque and well-proportioned design. Its interior has finely detailed features such as the delicate leaf-like plasterwork on the ceiling and ornate ironmongery on the windows. The principal room of the pavilion is lined with square panelling which is inscribed with the names of cricket players dating back to 1856, some of whom went on to become internationally renowned including Percy Chapman who captained the England cricket team and cricket broadcaster Jonathan Agnew MBE. Listed Grade II
沃尔特约翰塔佩尔爵士是一位着名的建筑师,他的名字中有许多受保护的建筑物,受到Uppingham学校的委托,遵循公立学校和大学投资板球馆的传统。 Uppingham学校的凉亭有一个深深的茅草屋顶,屋檐低矮,与带有含铅灯的石窗一起,形成了一个风景如画,匀称的设计。其内部拥有精致细节的特征,如天花板上精致的叶状灰泥和窗户上华丽的五金制品。展馆的主要房间内衬有方形镶板,上面刻有可追溯到1856年的板球运动员的名字,其中一些人继续成为国际知名人士,包括英国板球队和板球广播员Jonathan Agnew MBE队长的Percy Chapman。上市二级

Historic England
Historic England

15/34 Cricket Pavilion. Uppingham School, Rutland

Sir Walter John Tapper, a notable architect with many listed buildings to his name, was commissioned by Uppingham School to follow the tradition of public schools and universities investing in cricket pavilions. Uppingham School's pavilion has a deep thatched roof which sweeps low over the eaves and together with the stone windows with leaded lights, they combine to create a picturesque and well-proportioned design. Its interior has finely detailed features such as the delicate leaf-like plasterwork on the ceiling and ornate ironmongery on the windows. The principal room of the pavilion is lined with square panelling which is inscribed with the names of cricket players dating back to 1856, some of whom went on to become internationally renowned including Percy Chapman who captained the England cricket team and cricket broadcaster Jonathan Agnew MBE. Listed Grade II
沃尔特约翰塔佩尔爵士是一位着名的建筑师,他的名字中有许多受保护的建筑物,受到Uppingham学校的委托,遵循公立学校和大学投资板球馆的传统。 Uppingham学校的凉亭有一个深深的茅草屋顶,屋檐低矮,与带有含铅灯的石窗一起,形成了一个风景如画,匀称的设计。其内部拥有精致细节的特征,如天花板上精致的叶状灰泥和窗户上华丽的五金制品。展馆的主要房间内衬有方形镶板,上面刻有可追溯到1856年的板球运动员的名字,其中一些人继续成为国际知名人士,包括英国板球队和板球广播员Jonathan Agnew MBE队长的Percy Chapman。上市二级

Historic England
Historic England

16/34 The Cock Sign. Sutton High Street

The Cock Sign stands at a prominent location at the junction of Sutton High Street and Carshalton Road. It dates to around 1907 and originates from a pub called The Cock which was located at a junction known as The Cock Cross Roads and owned by 'Gentleman Jackson' (1769-1845), a celebrated English boxer who won the title 'Champion of England.' The Cock is a tall structure which was originally a grand gas lamp-post and pub sign, later converted to electricity and then to a road sign with multiple finger posts. It has been moved a few metres from its original location outside the Cock Hotel which is now demolished. The changes made to the sign over the years contribute to its special interest in helping to tell the story of Sutton High Street and how the town changed during the late 19th century and early 20th century. The sign was produced by the manufacturer Hart, Son, Peard and Co, who supplied some of the leading architects and designers of the day. Listed Grade II
Cock Sign位于Sutton High Street和Carshalton Road交汇处的显眼位置。它的历史可以追溯到1907年左右,起源于一家名为The Cock的酒吧,该酒吧位于一个名为The Cock Cross Roads的交界处,由着名的英国拳击手'Gentleman Jackson'(1769-1845)所有,他赢得了英国冠军头衔"。公鸡是一个高大的结构,原本是一个巨大的煤气灯柱和酒吧标志,后来转换为电力,然后转为具有多个指柱的道路标志。它已经从位于Cock Hotel酒店外的原始位置移动了几米,现在已被拆除。多年来对标志的改变使其特别有兴趣讲述萨顿大街的故事以及19世纪末20世纪初小镇的变化。该标志由制造商Hart,Son,Peard和Co制作,他们提供了当时一些领先的建筑师和设计师。上市二级

Historic England
Historic England

17/34 The Cock Sign. Sutton High Street

The Cock Sign stands at a prominent location at the junction of Sutton High Street and Carshalton Road. It dates to around 1907 and originates from a pub called The Cock which was located at a junction known as The Cock Cross Roads and owned by 'Gentleman Jackson' (1769-1845), a celebrated English boxer who won the title 'Champion of England.' The Cock is a tall structure which was originally a grand gas lamp-post and pub sign, later converted to electricity and then to a road sign with multiple finger posts. It has been moved a few metres from its original location outside the Cock Hotel which is now demolished. The changes made to the sign over the years contribute to its special interest in helping to tell the story of Sutton High Street and how the town changed during the late 19th century and early 20th century. The sign was produced by the manufacturer Hart, Son, Peard and Co, who supplied some of the leading architects and designers of the day. Listed Grade II
Cock Sign位于Sutton High Street和Carshalton Road交汇处的显眼位置。它的历史可以追溯到1907年左右,起源于一家名为The Cock的酒吧,该酒吧位于一个名为The Cock Cross Roads的交界处,由着名的英国拳击手'Gentleman Jackson'(1769-1845)所有,他赢得了英国冠军头衔"。公鸡是一个高大的结构,原本是一个巨大的煤气灯柱和酒吧标志,后来转换为电力,然后转为具有多个指柱的道路标志。它已经从位于Cock Hotel酒店外的原始位置移动了几米,现在已被拆除。多年来对标志的改变使其特别有兴趣讲述萨顿大街的故事以及19世纪末20世纪初小镇的变化。该标志由制造商Hart,Son,Peard和Co制作,他们提供了当时一些领先的建筑师和设计师。上市二级

Historic England
Historic England

18/34 East Mellwaters. County Durham

This walled settlement at East Mellwaters is a rare form of late prehistoric settlement. Traditionally, in Northern England, Iron Age and Romano-British native settlements take a variety of forms, with enclosures being defined by a bank and a ditch. Higher status enclosures, however, were formed of stone and have now been reduced to stony earthworks, as at East Mellwaters. The site is adjacent to other prehistoric settlement remains, which are thought to represent a succession of settlement sites established over the centuries. Scheduled Monument
东梅尔沃特(East Mellwaters)的这个有围墙的定居点是一种罕见的史前晚期定居点。传统上,在英格兰北部,铁器时代和罗马 - 英国本土定居点采取各种形式,其中围栏由银行和沟渠定义。然而,较高的地位围栏是由石头形成的,现在已经减少到石质土方工程,就像在East Mellwaters那样。该遗址毗邻其他史前定居遗迹,被认为代表了几个世纪以来建立的一系列定居点遗址。预定纪念碑

19/34 Hopkins House. Hampstead

Architects Michael and Patty Hopkins built the house as a family home in 1975-1976, which also served as their office until the early 1980s. The couple designed and constructed the house as a study in making use of the maximum, flexible space of the site and were influenced by the Eames Case Study House of 1949. The house is notable for its energy efficiency, which includes the low thermal demands of the house, sparing use of materials and Venetian blinds. The highly elegant and economic lightweight steel frame and glass building made in the High-Tech tradition, is particularly eye-catching amongst the Victorian mansions typical of Hampstead and the Regency villas that make Downshire Hill distinctive from the rest of the village. The house won an RIBA award in 1977 and a Civic Trust Award in 1979. The couple jointly won the RIBA Gold Medal in 1994 and Michael Hopkins went on to receive a knighthood for his achievements in 1995. Listed Grade II
建筑师迈克尔和帕蒂霍普金斯在1975年至1976年期间将这座房子建成了一个家庭住宅,直到20世纪80年代初,这座房子一直作为他们的办公室。这对夫妇设计并建造了这座房子,作为利用场地最大,灵活空间的研究,并受到1949年Eames Case Study House的影响。该房屋以其能源效率而闻名,其中包括低热量需求。房子,不遗余力地使用材料和威尼斯百叶窗。高科技传统的高雅,经济轻质钢框架和玻璃建筑,在汉普斯特德典型的维多利亚式豪宅和摄政别墅中引人注目,使得Downshire Hill与村庄的其他部分区别开来。该房屋于1977年获得RIBA奖,1979年获得公民信托奖。这对夫妇于1994年共同获得RIBA金奖,迈克尔·霍普金斯在1995年获得了他的成就爵位。列入二级

Historic England
Historic England

20/34 74 Dyer Street. Cirencester, Gloucestershire

The former office of the Wiltshire and Gloucestershire Standard. The Wiltshire and Gloucestershire Standard was founded in Malmesbury in 1837 and its production moved to Cirencester in 1840. It has continued to bring local news to the people of the two counties ever since. In 1904 the paper's owner, George Henry Harmer, who had worked his way up through the firm from reporter to proprietor, sought to unite the printing and publishing arms of the paper on the same site for the first time, and commissioned local architect VA Lawson to design a new publishing office on a narrow site in Dyer Street, retaining the existing printing sheds to the rear. The resulting three-storey building has an imposing presence in a street of otherwise modest Cotswold buildings. It is in an Arts and Crafts style, taller than its neighbours, with jetties which project the elaborate timber-framed upper floors out over the street. Listed Grade II
威尔特郡和格洛斯特郡标准的前办公室。威尔特郡和格洛斯特郡标准于1837年在马姆斯伯里成立,其生产于1840年迁至赛伦塞斯特。从那时起,它继续向两个县的人民传播当地新闻。 1904年,该报纸的所有者乔治·亨利·哈默(George Henry Harmer)从记者到老板一直在公司工作,他试图在同一地点首次将纸张的印刷和出版部门联合起来,并委托当地建筑师VA劳森在戴尔街的一个狭窄地点设计一个新的出版办公室,将现有的印刷棚保留在后方。由此产生的三层楼建筑在Cotswold其他建筑物的街道上占有一席之地。它是一种艺术和工艺品风格,比邻居高,有码头,精心设计的木结构楼层在街道上。上市二级

Historic England
Historic England

21/34 Wing Test Hangars. Rolls-Royce Hucknall, Nottinghamshire

In 1934, Rolls Royce leased two hangars at the Hucknall airfield, which was established in 1917, and created a testing programme there for aero engines and equipment. The building is largely intact and features many surviving fixtures dating back to the mid-20th century, including an engine-testing control panel, observation windows, wing spar mount assembly, roller doors, pierced metal sheet lining, as well as fittings and support for a de-tuner. The site saw many world-leading developments such as the Merlin Engine, which was tested, developed and adapted for the American Mustang fighter aircraft there. The world's first flight of a commercial jet aircraft flew from Hucknall to the Paris Air show in the late 1940s, using Frank Whittle's jet engine which had been developed on site. Listed Grade II
1934年,劳斯莱斯在Hucknall机场租赁了两个机库,该机场成立于1917年,并在那里为航空发动机和设备制定了测试计划。该建筑基本上完好无损,拥有许多可追溯到20世纪中期的幸存设施,包括发动机测试控制面板,观察窗,翼梁安装组件,卷帘门,穿孔金属板衬里,以及配件和支撑一个去调谐器。该站点看到了许多世界领先的开发项目,例如Merlin Engine,该项目经过测试,开发并适用于那里的美国野马战斗机。 20世纪40年代后期,世界上第一架商用喷气式飞机从Hucknall飞到巴黎航空展,使用了现场开发的Frank Whittle喷气发动机。上市二级

Historic England
Historic England

22/34 Wing Test Hangars. Rolls-Royce Hucknall, Nottinghamshire

In 1934, Rolls Royce leased two hangars at the Hucknall airfield, which was established in 1917, and created a testing programme there for aero engines and equipment. The building is largely intact and features many surviving fixtures dating back to the mid-20th century, including an engine-testing control panel, observation windows, wing spar mount assembly, roller doors, pierced metal sheet lining, as well as fittings and support for a de-tuner. The site saw many world-leading developments such as the Merlin Engine, which was tested, developed and adapted for the American Mustang fighter aircraft there. The world's first flight of a commercial jet aircraft flew from Hucknall to the Paris Air show in the late 1940s, using Frank Whittle's jet engine which had been developed on site. Listed Grade II
1934年,劳斯莱斯在Hucknall机场租赁了两个机库,该机场成立于1917年,并在那里为航空发动机和设备制定了测试计划。该建筑基本上完好无损,拥有许多可追溯到20世纪中期的幸存设施,包括发动机测试控制面板,观察窗,翼梁安装组件,卷帘门,穿孔金属板衬里,以及配件和支撑一个去调谐器。该站点看到了许多世界领先的开发项目,例如Merlin Engine,该项目经过测试,开发并适用于那里的美国野马战斗机。 20世纪40年代后期,世界上第一架商用喷气式飞机从Hucknall飞到巴黎航空展,使用了现场开发的Frank Whittle喷气发动机。上市二级

Historic England
Historic England

23/34 Lych gate to the east of Church of St John the Evangelist. Newcastle on Clun, Shropshire

The lych gate to the east of Church of St John the Evangelist in Newcastle on Clun dates from 1880 and forms a picturesque entrance to St John's churchyard. The design follows the Arts and Crafts traditions, bringing together joinery, ironmongery and slate work and is inspired by medieval predecessors. The roof mimics that of the lych gate claimed to be the oldest in the country, at the Church of St George in Beckenham, Kent, originally constructed in the 13th century. Within the timber-framed passageway of the lych gate is a revolving gate, which is an unusual feature and one of only a handful in existence in England. 'Lych' derives from the Anglo-Saxon or German word for corpse, and is named after the structure's primary function of storing the coffin before burial. Lych gates also serve as a meeting point and shelter for funeral parties before they are met by the priest. Listed Grade II
位于克伦纽卡斯尔的圣约翰福音传教士教堂以东的莱希门的历史可以追溯到1880年,形成了圣约翰教堂墓地的风景如画的入口。该设计遵循艺术和手工艺传统,将细木工,铁器和石板工作结合在一起,并受到中世纪前辈的启发。屋顶模仿了莱赫门,据称是该国最古老的,位于肯特郡贝肯汉姆的圣乔治教堂,最初建于13世纪。在莱希门的木框通道内是一个旋转门,这是一个不寻常的特征,也是英格兰少数几个存在的门之一。 'Lych'源于盎格鲁 - 撒克逊或德语中的尸体词,并以结构在埋葬前储存棺材的主要功能命名。在牧师遇见之前,Lych门也可作为葬礼聚会的聚会点和庇护所。上市二级

Historic England
Historic England

24/34 Tidal Observatory. Newlyn, Cornwall

The fishing industry in Newlyn on the south coast of Cornwall expanded in the 1880s, resulting in the construction of a new harbour and two piers. In the early 20th century, the south pier was extended to give better protection to the harbour and a tidal observatory was built at its north end. The observatory was one of three constructed at the request of Ordnance Survey to establish Mean Sea Level. With the observatory being completed in 1914, hourly measurements were taken of the height of the tide between 1915 and 1921, determining that Newlyn was the most stable and therefore the principal place to establish Mean Sea Level for the entire country. Over the next 100 years, the observatory contributed key tidal data to studies in oceanography, geology and climate change. Listed Grade II
位于康沃尔南部海岸的纽林的渔业在19世纪80年代扩大,导致新港口和两个码头的建设。在20世纪初期,南码头延伸到更好的保护港口,并在其北端建立了潮汐观测台。该观测站是根据军械测量局的要求建造的三个观测站之一,用于建立平均海平面。随着天文台于1914年完工,每小时对1915年至1921年的潮汐高度进行测量,确定Newlyn是最稳定的,因此是建立整个国家平均海平面的主要场所。在接下来的100年里,天文台为海洋学,地质学和气候变化研究提供了关键的潮汐数据。上市二级

Historic England
Historic England

25/34 Old Lifeboat House. Walton-on-the-Naze, Essex

The former lifeboat house, built in 1884, was designed by CH Cooke and represents the crucial role played by the Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI) in saving lives at sea since the 19th century. Its wide gabled structure and ornamental treatment, made up of fish-scale tiling, decorative moulded brick, and a beautifully incorporated bay window, create a finely detailed and strikingly composed building. The local community played an important part in raising funds for the site, which housed Walton's first lifeboat, a 37ft 'self-righter' Norfolk/ Suffolk class 'sailing & pulling' lifeboat, a design suited to the East coast's shallow waters. Baroness Bolsover launched the boat in a ceremony, held in Walton, on 18 November 1884 outside the new Lifeboat House where the boat had recently arrived by train. Listed Grade II
这艘前救生艇房建于1884年,由CH Cooke设计,代表了自19世纪以来皇家国家救生艇研究所(RNLI)在拯救海上生命方面所发挥的重要作用。其宽阔的山墙结构和装饰处理,由鱼鳞瓷砖,装饰模压砖和精美的凸窗组成,创造了一个精致细致和惊人的组成建筑。当地社区在为该地点筹集资金方面发挥了重要作用,该地点是沃尔顿的第一艘救生艇,一艘37英尺的"自救式"诺福克/萨福克级"航行和拉动"救生艇,这种设计适合东海岸的浅水区。男爵夫人Bolsover于1884年11月18日在沃尔顿举行的仪式上发射了这艘船,该仪式位于新救生艇之家外,该船最近乘火车到达。上市二级

Historic England
Historic England

26/34 Cattle Trough and Drinking Fountain. Spaniards Road, Hampstead

Cattle troughs were once commonplace in Britain, with the Metropolitan Drinking Fountain and Cattle Trough Association (MDFCTA) responsible for over 1000 of them. Around 500 of these were located in London, however a large number have now been lost. The trough in Spaniards Road was believed to have been erected in 1916, making it a particularly late example of its type. Although the pump and spout mechanism are missing, the cattle trough is an important reminder that horse-drawn transport was commonplace in the early 20th century, despite the increasing use of motorised transport. In providing free drinking water for horses, charities like the MDFCTA also played an important role in raising standards in animal welfare. Listed Grade II
牛槽在英国曾经很普遍,大都会饮水机和牛槽协会(MDFCTA)负责其中1000多个。其中大约500个位于伦敦,但现在已经失去了很多。据信,西班牙人道路上的低谷是在1916年竖立起来的,这使得它成为一种特别晚的例子。虽然缺少泵和喷口机制,但是牛槽是一个重要的提醒,尽管越来越多地使用机动运输,但是马拉运输在20世纪初是司空见惯的。在为马匹提供免费饮用水方面,像MDFCTA这样的慈善机构在提高动物福利标准方面也发挥了重要作用。上市二级

Historic England
Historic England

27/34 Caynton Manor Gatehouse. Newport, Shropshire

This early 17th century gatehouse to the former Caynton Manor is a remarkable survival, previously undiscovered. Originally a formal gateway to a wealthy country house, it has been used for agricultural purposes since the 18th century. While very little is known about the house which the gatehouse served, the quality of the gatehouse signifies a substantial building of high status. It is a well-proportioned building with a red sandstone base, a tiled roof and good quality detailing, characteristic of this building type at the time it was built, around 1635. Of particular interest is the carved detailing around the archways and the elaborate plasterwork in the principal rooms inside the gatehouse. This listing means that it can now be assessed for inclusion on Historic England's Heritage at Risk Register, which would enable Historic England to offer specialist technical advice to help secure its future. Listed Grade II*
这座17世纪初的门楼通往前坎顿庄园,是一项非凡的生存,以前未被发现。最初是通往富裕乡间别墅的正式门户,自18世纪以来一直用于农业用途。虽然对门楼所服务的房屋知之甚少,但门楼的质量意味着建筑物的高度地位。这是一座比例均匀的建筑,拥有红色砂岩底座,铺有瓷砖的屋顶和高质量的细节,是建于1635年左右的建筑类型的特色。特别感兴趣的是拱门周围的雕刻细节和精心制作的灰泥在门楼内的主要房间。此列表意味着现在可以评估它是否包含在Historic England的遗产风险登记册中,这将使历史悠久的英格兰能够提供专业的技术建议,以帮助确保其未来。二级上市*

Historic England
Historic England

28/34 Caynton Manor Gatehouse. Newport, Shropshire

This early 17th century gatehouse to the former Caynton Manor is a remarkable survival, previously undiscovered. Originally a formal gateway to a wealthy country house, it has been used for agricultural purposes since the 18th century. While very little is known about the house which the gatehouse served, the quality of the gatehouse signifies a substantial building of high status. It is a well-proportioned building with a red sandstone base, a tiled roof and good quality detailing, characteristic of this building type at the time it was built, around 1635. Of particular interest is the carved detailing around the archways and the elaborate plasterwork in the principal rooms inside the gatehouse. This listing means that it can now be assessed for inclusion on Historic England's Heritage at Risk Register, which would enable Historic England to offer specialist technical advice to help secure its future. Listed Grade II*
这座17世纪初的门楼通往前坎顿庄园,是一项非凡的生存,以前未被发现。最初是通往富裕乡间别墅的正式门户,自18世纪以来一直用于农业用途。虽然对门楼所服务的房屋知之甚少,但门楼的质量意味着建筑物的高度地位。这是一座比例均匀的建筑,拥有红色砂岩底座,铺有瓷砖的屋顶和高质量的细节,是建于1635年左右的建筑类型的特色。特别感兴趣的是拱门周围的雕刻细节和精心制作的灰泥在门楼内的主要房间。此列表意味着现在可以评估它是否包含在Historic England的遗产风险登记册中,这将使历史悠久的英格兰能够提供专业的技术建议,以帮助确保其未来。二级上市*

Historic England
Historic England

29/34 Garden at Kingcombe. Chipping Camden, Gloucestershire

The garden at Kingcombe complements Grade II listed Kingcombe House. It is an increasingly rare survival of an Arts and Crafts garden laid out in the 1930s. The pre-war garden is well-preserved and is an impressive and thoughtful design which includes Italian influences in the terraced garden including Italian steps to divide it from the more functional parts of the garden and to provide a vertical link from the top of the terraces to the meadow beyond the garden. Intact gardens dating from the 1930s are rare in England. It was designed initially by Sir Geoffrey Jellicoe and Russell Page with Sir Gordon Russell between 1927 and 1936 with later additions by Sir Gordon Russell from the 1940s through to the 1970s. During the Second World War and the austerity years that followed, few private houses were built so commissions for new gardens were few and far between. Grade II Registered Park and Garden
Kingcombe酒店的花园与二级保护的Kingcombe House相得益彰。这是20世纪30年代建立的艺术和工艺园的日益罕见的生存。战前花园保存完好,是一个令人印象深刻和周到的设计,包括意大利风格的露台花园,包括意大利台阶,从花园的更多功能部分分开,并提供从露台顶部的垂直连接到了花园外的草地。 20世纪30年代的完整花园在英格兰很少见。它最初是由Geoffrey Jellicoe先生和Russell Page与Sir Gordon Russell在1927年至1936年之间设计的,后来由Gordon Russell爵士从20世纪40年代到70年代加入。在第二次世界大战和随后的紧缩年代,很少有私人住宅建成,所以新花园的佣金很少。二级注册公园和花园

Historic England
Historic England

30/34 Garden at Kingcombe. Chipping Camden, Gloucestershire

The garden at Kingcombe complements Grade II listed Kingcombe House. It is an increasingly rare survival of an Arts and Crafts garden laid out in the 1930s. The pre-war garden is well-preserved and is an impressive and thoughtful design which includes Italian influences in the terraced garden including Italian steps to divide it from the more functional parts of the garden and to provide a vertical link from the top of the terraces to the meadow beyond the garden. Intact gardens dating from the 1930s are rare in England. It was designed initially by Sir Geoffrey Jellicoe and Russell Page with Sir Gordon Russell between 1927 and 1936 with later additions by Sir Gordon Russell from the 1940s through to the 1970s. During the Second World War and the austerity years that followed, few private houses were built so commissions for new gardens were few and far between. Grade II Registered Park and Garden
Kingcombe酒店的花园与二级保护的Kingcombe House相得益彰。这是20世纪30年代建立的艺术和工艺园的日益罕见的生存。战前花园保存完好,是一个令人印象深刻和周到的设计,包括意大利风格的露台花园,包括意大利台阶,从花园的更多功能部分分开,并提供从露台顶部的垂直连接到了花园外的草地。 20世纪30年代的完整花园在英格兰很少见。它最初是由Geoffrey Jellicoe先生和Russell Page与Sir Gordon Russell在1927年至1936年之间设计的,后来由Gordon Russell爵士从20世纪40年代到70年代加入。在第二次世界大战和随后的紧缩年代,很少有私人住宅建成,所以新花园的佣金很少。二级注册公园和花园

Historic England
Historic England

31/34 Robin Hood and his Merry Men. Castle Place, Nottingham

Acclaimed sculptor and Nottingham native, James Arthur Woodford RA OBE was commissioned to craft this imaginative group of sculptures, depicting the legendary characters of Robin Hood and his Merry Men, to commemorate the visit of their Royal Highnesses the Princess Elizabeth and the Duke of Edinburgh for the city's quincentenary celebrations in 1949. Woodford conceived the group of sculptures to occupy the land in the outer ditch of Nottingham Castle, the setting of one of the most popular legendary tales of Robin Hood. The sculptures form a significant group with the Grade I listed Nottingham Castle. Listed Grade II
着名的雕塑家和诺丁汉人,詹姆斯亚瑟伍德福德RA OBE受委托制作这个富有想象力的雕塑群,描绘罗宾汉和他的风流人物的传奇人物,以纪念他们的皇家殿下伊丽莎白公主和爱丁堡公爵的访问这座城市在1949年举办了几十年的庆祝活动。伍德福德构思了一组雕塑,占据了诺丁汉城堡外沟的土地,这是罗宾汉最受欢迎的传奇故事之一。这些雕塑形成了一个重要的群体,一级列为诺丁汉城堡。上市二级

Historic England
Historic England

32/34 Robin Hood and his Merry Men. Castle Place, Nottingham

Acclaimed sculptor and Nottingham native, James Arthur Woodford RA OBE was commissioned to craft this imaginative group of sculptures, depicting the legendary characters of Robin Hood and his Merry Men, to commemorate the visit of their Royal Highnesses the Princess Elizabeth and the Duke of Edinburgh for the city's quincentenary celebrations in 1949. Woodford conceived the group of sculptures to occupy the land in the outer ditch of Nottingham Castle, the setting of one of the most popular legendary tales of Robin Hood. The sculptures form a significant group with the Grade I listed Nottingham Castle. Listed Grade II
着名的雕塑家和诺丁汉人,詹姆斯亚瑟伍德福德RA OBE受委托制作这个富有想象力的雕塑群,描绘罗宾汉和他的风流人物的传奇人物,以纪念他们的皇家殿下伊丽莎白公主和爱丁堡公爵的访问这座城市在1949年举办了几十年的庆祝活动。伍德福德构思了一组雕塑,占据了诺丁汉城堡外沟的土地,这是罗宾汉最受欢迎的传奇故事之一。这些雕塑形成了一个重要的群体,一级列为诺丁汉城堡。上市二级

Historic England
Historic England

33/34 Cappleside Barn. Rathmell, North Yorkshire

Cappleside Barn in Ribblesdale, North Yorkshire was built in 1714. It is a large barn with a remarkable ornamental roof structure with carefully shaped timbers that also include carved motifs such as 'daisy-wheels'. At first, Historic England thought that these roof timbers had been reused from a high-status medieval house, but dendrochronology has shown that the timbers came from trees felled shortly before the construction of the barn. The barn, with a cutting-edge design for its time, includes integrated housing for cows which allowed more cattle to be kept over the winter, increasing herd sizes and farming prosperity. To protect this investment, 18th century belief systems saw the use of witches' marks or special carved motifs placed near openings to ward off witches and evil spirits. Listed Grade II*
位于北约克郡Ribblesdale的Cappleside Barn建于1714年。它是一个大型谷仓,拥有非凡的装饰屋顶结构,精心塑造的木材,还包括雕刻图案,如"菊花轮"。起初,历史悠久的英格兰认为这些屋顶木材已经从一个高地位的中世纪房屋中重新使用,但是树木年代学表明这些木材来自于谷仓建造前不久砍伐的树木。该谷仓采用最先进的设计,包括奶牛的综合外壳,允许在冬季饲养更多的牛,增加畜群规模和农业繁荣。为了保护这项投资,18世纪的信仰系统使用巫婆的标记或在开口附近放置的特殊雕刻图案来抵御女巫和邪恶的灵魂。二级上市*

Historic England
Historic England

34/34 Cappleside Barn. Rathmell, North Yorkshire

Cappleside Barn in Ribblesdale, North Yorkshire was built in 1714. It is a large barn with a remarkable ornamental roof structure with carefully shaped timbers that also include carved motifs such as 'daisy-wheels'. At first, Historic England thought that these roof timbers had been reused from a high-status medieval house, but dendrochronology has shown that the timbers came from trees felled shortly before the construction of the barn. The barn, with a cutting-edge design for its time, includes integrated housing for cows which allowed more cattle to be kept over the winter, increasing herd sizes and farming prosperity. To protect this investment, 18th century belief systems saw the use of witches' marks or special carved motifs placed near openings to ward off witches and evil spirits. Listed Grade II*
位于北约克郡Ribblesdale的Cappleside Barn建于1714年。它是一个大型谷仓,拥有非凡的装饰屋顶结构,精心塑造的木材,还包括雕刻图案,如"菊花轮"。起初,历史悠久的英格兰认为这些屋顶木材已经从一个高地位的中世纪房屋中重新使用,但是树木年代学表明这些木材来自于谷仓建造前不久砍伐的树木。该谷仓采用最先进的设计,包括奶牛的综合外壳,允许在冬季饲养更多的牛,增加畜群规模和农业繁荣。为了保护这项投资,18世纪的信仰系统使用巫婆的标记或在开口附近放置的特殊雕刻图案来抵御女巫和邪恶的灵魂。二级上市*

Historic England
Historic England

The niche dimensions themselves suggest that the bronze rams on Antony and Cleopatra's warships were at least four times the size of the largest ancient rams found anywhere by archaeologists.
利基尺寸本身表明,安东尼和克利奥帕特拉的战舰上的青铜公羊的尺寸至少是考古学家在任何地方发现的最大的古老公羊的四倍。

The largest niche appears to have been constructed to house a huge 1.7m-wide ram. What's more, the niche evidence also suggests that some of the rams were 1.6m in height -- and up to 2.5m long.
最大的利基似乎是为了容纳一个巨大的170米宽的公羊而建造的。更重要的是,利基证据还表明,一些公羊的高度为1.6米 - 长达2.5米。

Although the primary purpose of giant rams was probably to break through harbour entrance defences, their intended role in this particular battle was almost certainly to pierce the hulls of enemy ships below the waterline, thus potentially sinking them.
虽然巨型公羊的主要目的可能是突破海港入口防御,但它们在这次特殊战斗中的预期作用几乎肯定会刺穿水线以下的敌舰船体,因此可能会使它们沉没。

Of the 35 enemy rams which Octavian put on permanent display in his victory monument, 20 were simply very large -- with a further 15 being absolutely huge.
在他的胜利纪念碑中,Octavian永久展出的35只敌人公羊中,有20只非常大 - 还有15只绝对巨大。

One of the gates of Nicopolis
尼科波利斯的大门之一

The largest were displayed in niches at the western and eastern ends of the victory monument.
最大的展示在胜利纪念碑西端和东端的壁龛中。

The edifice has been systematically investigated by archaeologists over the past 16 years. Indeed, six of the 35 niches were only fully excavated 18 months ago.
在过去的16年里,考古学家一直在系统地研究这座大厦。实际上,35个壁龛中有六个仅在18个月前被完全挖掘出来。

Details of this major investigation, funded by the Greek Ministry of Culture and the Stavros Niarchos Foundation, were recently revealed at an international archaeological conference organised in San Diego, California, by the Archaeological Institute of America.
由希腊文化部和斯塔夫罗斯尼亚克斯基金会资助的这项重大调查的细节最近在美国考古研究所在加利福尼亚州圣地亚哥举办的国际考古会议上公布。

The senior archaeologist who has been leading the research at Nicopolis, Dr Konstantinos Zachos, emeritus curator of antiqities at the Greek Ministry of Culture, told
曾在尼科波利斯领导研究的资深考古学家康斯坦丁诺斯·佐波罗斯博士,希腊文化部的退休策展人,告诉他们 The Independent that analysis of the crucial archaeological data from the victory monument is set to continue.
对胜利纪念碑的重要考古数据的分析将继续进行。

"Both historically and archaeologically, this remarkable Roman structure is of tremendous international importance -- and continuing research is likely to shed yet more light on the battle that gave birth to the Roman Empire," said Dr Zachos.
"从历史和考古学角度来看,这种非凡的罗马结构具有巨大的国际重要性 - 持续的研究可能会为生成罗马帝国的战争提供更多的启示,"扎乔斯博士说。

Mosaic from a Roman basilica inside Nicopolis
从尼科波利斯里面的罗马大教堂的马赛克

Prior to the detailed study of the niches, some of the key information about the monument came from an ancient Roman epigram by the first century AD poet, Philippus of Thessalonika.
在对壁龛进行详细研究之前,关于这座纪念碑的一些关键信息来自公元一世纪诗人塞萨洛尼卡的菲利普斯的古罗马字谜。

It describes the victory monument from the perspective of the rams themselves:
它从公羊本身的角度描述了胜利纪念碑:

"Bronze-jawed rams, ships' voyage-loving armour, we lie here as witnesses to the war at Actium."
"青铜下颚的公羊,船只的航行爱好的盔甲,我们躺在这里作为Actium战争的见证人。"

The historian in charge of researching the niches themselves, Professor William Murray of the University of South Florida, says that ongoing analysis of the niche data is of great historical importance.
负责研究利基市场的历史学家,南佛罗里达大学的William Murray教授说,对利基数据的持续分析具有重要的历史意义。

A section of the city walls of Nicopolis
尼科波利斯城墙的一部分

"The emerging evidence is likely to revolutionise our understanding of what really powerful marine rams were capable of and help give us a much greater appreciation of the forces behind the resulting collisions," said Professor Murray, a leading authority on Greek and Roman warships and author of the most recent key work on naval warfare in the ancient Mediterranean,
"新出现的证据可能会彻底改变我们对真正强大的海洋公羊的能力的理解,并帮助我们更好地了解由此产生的碰撞背后的力量,"穆雷教授说,他是希腊和罗马军舰和作家的主要权威。关于古地中海海战的最新重点工作, The Age of Titans: the Rise and Fall of the Great Hellenistic Navies .
.

The huge sea battle at Actium, which the victory monument was built to commemorate, was, in more recent times, portrayed most famously in the spectacular epic 1960s film,
为纪念这座胜利纪念碑而举行的Actium巨大的海战,最近在20世纪60年代史诗般的电影中被描绘得最为着名,Cleopatra , starring Elizabeth Taylor as Cleopatra, Richard Burton as Mark Antony and Roddy McDowall as Octavian.
伊丽莎白泰勒饰演克利奥帕特拉,理查德伯顿饰演马克安东尼,罗迪麦克道尔担任屋大维。

However, the monument wasn't the only thing that Octavian built to celebrate his historic victory and to commemorate the official creation of Rome's great empire. For, adjacent to it, he constructed a full-scale city (Nicopolis, Greek for "City of Victory"), which grew to have a population of more than 20,000 (mostly Greeks encouraged to move there from a substantial number of pre-existing local towns).
然而,这座纪念碑并不是Octavian为纪念他的历史性胜利和纪念罗马伟大帝国的正式创造而建造的唯一纪念碑。因为在它附近,他建造了一个全面的城市(尼科波利斯,希腊语为"胜利之城"),其人口超过2万(大多数希腊人被鼓励从大量预先存在的地方迁移到那里)当地城镇)。

Its spectacular ancient city gates and walls (three miles of which are still visible), its theatres, baths and stadium and its Roman villas, churches and impressive aqueduct system still survive to this day, and can be visited by tourists. It is the largest ancient ruined city in Greece -- located four miles north of the small town of Preveza in the Greek region of Epirus.
其壮观的古城门和城墙(三英里仍然可见),其剧院,浴场和体育场及其罗马别墅,教堂和令人印象深刻的渡槽系统至今仍然存在,游客可以参观。它是希腊最大的古代废墟城市 - 位于伊庇鲁斯希腊地区小镇普雷韦扎以北4英里处。

The long-abandoned city's huge theatre is currently being conserved.
这个长期被遗弃的城市巨大的剧院目前正在被保存。

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支持自由思考的新闻,并订阅独立思想

Although the victory monument and many of the city's impressive buildings have survived through the centuries, all 35 spectacular bronze rams have long since vanished (apart from a few fragments found by archaeologists). Only their empty niches remain -- testimony to the fate of Antony and Cleopatra and to the birth of one of the greatest empires and political systems the world has ever seen.
虽然胜利纪念碑和许多城市令人印象深刻的建筑物已经存活了几个世纪,但所有35只壮观的青铜公羊早已消失(除了考古学家发现的一些碎片)。只留下他们空洞的利基 - 证明了安东尼和克利奥帕特拉的命运,以及世界上最伟大的帝国和政治制度之一的诞生。

As to what ultimately became of the bronze rams themselves, it's likely that they were melted down by local people or militias or by invading Barbarians at some stage in the 4th or 5th centuries AD, the very period that saw the weakening and collapse of much of the Roman Empire. In that sense, the site represents not only the birth of that great empire, but also the beginning of its demise.
关于最终成为青铜公羊本身的情况,它们可能会被当地人民或民兵融化,或者在公元4世纪或5世纪的某个阶段被入侵的野蛮人融化,这个时期看到了大部分的减弱和崩溃。罗马帝国。从这个意义上讲,该网站不仅代表了这个伟大帝国的诞生,也代表了它灭亡的开始。


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