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Archaeologists and historians are shedding extraordinary new light on one of the most important events in human history -- the horrific battle which gave birth to the Roman Empire.

A detailed study of a unique victory monument, overlooking the sea in northwest Greece, is revealing some of the long-lost secrets of that crucial military engagement -- a great sea battle, fought between Julius Caesar's adoptive son and heir, Octavian (who became Rome's first emperor) and Egypt's Queen Cleopatra (and her Roman lover, Mark Antony).

The remains of the victory monument still survive adjacent to Nicopolis -- the largest ancient ruined city in Greece.

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Octavian (who received the title Augustus when he became Rome's first emperor) won that crucial naval clash of arms in 31BC -- and, now, more than 2,000 years later, detailed analysis of his great victory monument, overlooking the battle site near the ancient Greek religious sanctuary of Actium, is helping scholars to more fully understand how his world-changing victory was achieved.

It's always been thought that many of Cleopatra and Mark Antony's ships were bigger than Octavian's -- and were therefore less manoeuvrable.

Two action images of the sea battle of Actium -- the clash of arms that gave birth to the Roman Empire

But now crucial archaeological data obtained from the victory monument excavations over recent years has provided the first archaeological confirmation that some of Cleopatra and Mark Antony's ships were indeed unusually large. This would have given Octavian -- who had smaller, faster vessels -- a history-changing advantage. The evidence is also allowing archaeologists to begin to work out the military rationale behind Octavian's battle tactics.

The crucial data is from a series of around 35 niches set into the front of Octavian's great victory monument. It's known, in part from a first century AD Roman poem, that the niches were made to hold the great bronze marine battering rams from some of Mark Antony and Cleopatra's most important warships.

Octavian captured 350 of their vessels -- and chose the rams of just 35 of them as war trophies for permanent display in his monument to his enemies' defeat.

The analysis of the niches (some of which were only excavated in the past two years) has revealed that they are all of different dimensions and had therefore been made to hold specific enemy rams of different shapes and sizes.

The Nicopolis city theatre

What's more, the detailed design of some of the niches reveals the vertical dimensions and shapes of the sides of each ram -- and from those details, archaeologists have been able to begin to deduce that the crucial curved horizontal so-called "wale" timbers holding each vessel together (and absorbing the shock of administering ram impacts) were unusually massive. Indeed it is conceivable that some of Antony and Cleopatra's warships were up to 40 metres long.

It is anticipated that future further analysis of the niche dimensions will reveal additional details about those horizontal timbers and thus also about the amount of force involved in ramming an enemy ship. In turn this will help further advance scholars' understanding of the sheer scale of the military power and capability of the vessels involved.

Up till now, historians and archaeologists have had no real way of beginning to estimate the ramming "firepower" of the vessels involved in the crucial conflict which gave birth to the Roman Empire. The research is likely to enhance historians' appreciation of why Octavian's tactics in this sea battle were designed to prevent Antony and Cleopatra from effectively using their warships' huge ramming capability.

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1/34 Florence Mine. Egremont, West Cumbria

Florence Mine in West Cumbria is one of the best-surviving mining sites of any type nationally and is the best-surviving example of an iron mining pit head in England: it retains a full suite of buildings complete with nearly all of its machinery and equipment. From the mid-19th century, iron mining fundamentally altered Western Cumbria and the Furness peninsular, making a significant contribution to the national economy. However, site clearances following industrial decline in the second half of the 20th century, has left few surviving remains of the industry. Florence Mine is believed to have been the last iron mine to close in Europe and was last worked in 2007. Hematite iron ore from the mine is used for the pigment Egremont Red, still found in some lipsticks today. Listed Grade II

Historic England

2/34 University of York, Campus West designed landscape. Heslington, York

The University of York Campus West designed landscape was laid out from 1963-1980 It is a high-quality post-war university landscape that fulfils the architects' masterplan vision of creating a town in miniature with a pedestrianised environment. One of the key features of the landscape is the lake, which has two small islands, a courtyard pool and a fountain which form a central focal point at the heart of the campus. Offering bursts of green against the surrounding concrete structures are the lake features, reed beds and lily pads, which were introduced to improve water purity. The landscape is relatively unaltered since it was laid out and the design successfully integrates the new landscape with the historic Heslington Hall gardens. It was designed by distinguished mid-20th century architects Andrew Derbyshire and Maurice Lee of RMJM with Frank Clark, the co-founders of the Garden History Society (now The Garden Trust). Listed Grade II

Historic England

3/34 University of York, Campus West designed landscape. Heslington, York

The University of York Campus West designed landscape was laid out from 1963-1980 It is a high-quality post-war university landscape that fulfils the architects' masterplan vision of creating a town in miniature with a pedestrianised environment. One of the key features of the landscape is the lake, which has two small islands, a courtyard pool and a fountain which form a central focal point at the heart of the campus. Offering bursts of green against the surrounding concrete structures are the lake features, reed beds and lily pads, which were introduced to improve water purity. The landscape is relatively unaltered since it was laid out and the design successfully integrates the new landscape with the historic Heslington Hall gardens. It was designed by distinguished mid-20th century architects Andrew Derbyshire and Maurice Lee of RMJM with Frank Clark, the co-founders of the Garden History Society (now The Garden Trust). Listed Grade II

Historic England

4/34 30 Coptic Street and 35 Little Russell Street, London

Originally constructed in 1888 for the Dairy Supply Company, 30 Coptic Street and 35 Little Russell Street were once the place of manufacture of the iconic milk churn. It is here that they made 17 gallon galvanised iron containers, designed for transporting milk by rail. The company was heavily associated with George Barnham, who invented the containers and went on to become chair of the British Dairy Farmers Association, Mayor of Hampstead and High Sheriff of Middlesex and was knighted in 1904. The buildings still pay homage to their days as the headquarters of the first major manufacturer of dairy equipment, with its original signage, made of Portland stone, still intact. The exterior features ornate brick decoration which advertised the Dairy Supply Company Limited. Listed Grade II

Historic England

5/34 Old Otterington Railway Station. South Otterington, Northallerton, North Yorkshire

Travellers on the East Coast Main Line north of York typically pass the former Otterington Railway Station at over 100 miles per hour. This station building with its signal box was built by the London and North Eastern Railway (LNER) in 1932 as a replacement for the Victorian station that had been cleared away to allow the expansion of the line to four tracks. This was part of LNER's rivalry with the London Midland Scottish Railway in providing ever faster rail services between London and Scotland. Perhaps in deference to more conservative architectural tastes of this part of rural North Yorkshire, the design was carefully moderated with neo-Georgian detailing. The 1930s modernity of Otterington Railway Station however never changed the fact that this was always a sleepy, little-used wayside railway station. It closed to passengers in 1958 and to goods traffic in 1964. It's remarkable survival is owed to its passing into sympathetic private ownership. Listed Grade II

Historic England

6/34 University of York, Central Hall. Heslington, York

The University of York was one of seven new universities founded in England between 1958 and 1961. Central Hall is the centrepiece of the University's western campus and has a striking and bold design. The exceptionally detailed development plan behind the campus was heralded as the beginning of contemporary university planning in Britain. The building is a concrete structure with a suspended mild steel tubular roof clad in aluminium, with the upper floors, where the auditorium is located, cantilevered out on the lake sides. It continues a historic tradition established by late 19th century and early 20th century 'red brick' universities in featuring a great hall for special events. Central Hall was designed by Andrew Derbyshire and Maurice Lee of RMJM in 1966-1968 with the notable mid-20th century architects, Stirrat Johnson-Marshall and Andrew Derbyshire. Listed Grade II

Historic England

7/34 Pedestrian Subway, Vestibule, Terrace and Stairs beneath Crystal Palace Parade. South London

The Crystal Palace subway, vestibule, terrace and stairs provide an elaborate pedestrian passageway, with finely-crafted Byzantine-style vaulting in red and cream brick and chequered floors in alternating stone. The structure dates from 1865 and was built to link a new train station directly to the entrance of the Crystal Palace. Designed by highly-accomplished architect Charles Barry Junior, the quality of construction is excellent. It is an architecturally imaginative solution to the problem of transporting visitors beneath Crystal Palace Parade and providing a dramatic introduction to the palace itself. The subway's historic interest is with its association with the Great Exhibition, one of the most important cultural events of the Victorian era. The subway was originally listed at Grade II* in 1972 and was upgraded to Grade II this year.

Historic England

8/34 Pedestrian Subway, Vestibule, Terrace and Stairs beneath Crystal Palace Parade. South London

The Crystal Palace subway, vestibule, terrace and stairs provide an elaborate pedestrian passageway, with finely-crafted Byzantine-style vaulting in red and cream brick and chequered floors in alternating stone. The structure dates from 1865 and was built to link a new train station directly to the entrance of the Crystal Palace. Designed by highly-accomplished architect Charles Barry Junior, the quality of construction is excellent. It is an architecturally imaginative solution to the problem of transporting visitors beneath Crystal Palace Parade and providing a dramatic introduction to the palace itself. The subway's historic interest is with its association with the Great Exhibition, one of the most important cultural events of the Victorian era. The subway was originally listed at Grade II in 1972 and was upgraded to Grade II* this year.

Historic England

9/34 Memorial Bus Shelter. Osmington, Dorset

The thatched memorial bus shelter at Osmington in West Dorset is located on the south side of the A353 and is an important landmark in the village. It dates to around the 1940s and was built by Harry and Ethel Parry-Jones in memory of their son, David, a lieutenant in the 1st Battalion of The Rifle Brigade who died at the age of 20 on 3 August 1944 during the Battle of Normandy. Local materials were used including Purbeck stone and thatch which complements the bus shelter's surroundings. Despite its vulnerability as a piece of street furniture, the bus shelter has not been significantly altered since it was first built. It demonstrates that even modest and functional structures can form eloquent and valuable memorials for their local communities. Listed Grade II

Historic England

10/34 The Assembly Rooms. Charlton

Although modest in scale, the Assembly Rooms building has great presence with its bright, red brick exterior. This charming community hall boasts an exuberant design with its late-19th century, Jacobean Revival style, terracotta tiles and stone detailing. Since its construction in 1881, and despite being damaged in the Second World War, the hall has only seen minor alterations, with the interior retaining its original plan and stage. Unlike other community halls of around this date, which tend to be built on a tighter budget, the Assembly Rooms at Charlton were funded by the wealthy benefactor, Sir Spencer Maryon-Wilson, who lived in the nearby Grade I listed Charlton House. The rich decoration of the Assembly Rooms features his family Coat of Arms, along with terracotta panels embellished with floral motifs, and is a good example of the impact of Victorian philanthropy on this simple building type. Listed Grade II

Historic England

11/34 The Assembly Rooms. Charlton

Although modest in scale, the Assembly Rooms building has great presence with its bright, red brick exterior. This charming community hall boasts an exuberant design with its late-19th century, Jacobean Revival style, terracotta tiles and stone detailing. Since its construction in 1881, and despite being damaged in the Second World War, the hall has only seen minor alterations, with the interior retaining its original plan and stage. Unlike other community halls of around this date, which tend to be built on a tighter budget, the Assembly Rooms at Charlton were funded by the wealthy benefactor, Sir Spencer Maryon-Wilson, who lived in the nearby Grade I listed Charlton House. The rich decoration of the Assembly Rooms features his family Coat of Arms, along with terracotta panels embellished with floral motifs, and is a good example of the impact of Victorian philanthropy on this simple building type. Listed Grade II

Historic England

12/34 St John the Baptist Church, boundary walls, vicarage and school. Pendeen, Cornwall

The parish of Pendeen in Cornwall was established in 1846, and its first vicar, Reverend Robert Aitken, was tasked to provide a church for the community. Aitken was renowned for his unusual preaching style and this was deemed to be well-suited to pull people away from the dominance of Methodism in the county's mining communities. Aitken took it upon himself to design the church, the neighbouring vicarage and school, using local materials. Many of the fixtures and fittings were also made by local craftspeople, and Aitken donated his own collection of 16th century and 17th century Flemish and German glass roundels to enhance the windows. From 1850 until 1852, the predominantly-mining community worked to quarry stone from Carn Earnes, the hill above the church, in order to build the church and its boundary walls. Listed Grade II

Historic England

13/34 St John the Baptist Church, boundary walls, vicarage and school. Pendeen, Cornwall

The parish of Pendeen in Cornwall was established in 1846, and its first vicar, Reverend Robert Aitken, was tasked to provide a church for the community. Aitken was renowned for his unusual preaching style and this was deemed to be well-suited to pull people away from the dominance of Methodism in the county's mining communities. Aitken took it upon himself to design the church, the neighbouring vicarage and school, using local materials. Many of the fixtures and fittings were also made by local craftspeople, and Aitken donated his own collection of 16th century and 17th century Flemish and German glass roundels to enhance the windows. From 1850 until 1852, the predominantly-mining community worked to quarry stone from Carn Earnes, the hill above the church, in order to build the church and its boundary walls. Listed Grade II

Historic England

14/34 Cricket Pavilion. Uppingham School, Rutland

Sir Walter John Tapper, a notable architect with many listed buildings to his name, was commissioned by Uppingham School to follow the tradition of public schools and universities investing in cricket pavilions. Uppingham School's pavilion has a deep thatched roof which sweeps low over the eaves and together with the stone windows with leaded lights, they combine to create a picturesque and well-proportioned design. Its interior has finely detailed features such as the delicate leaf-like plasterwork on the ceiling and ornate ironmongery on the windows. The principal room of the pavilion is lined with square panelling which is inscribed with the names of cricket players dating back to 1856, some of whom went on to become internationally renowned including Percy Chapman who captained the England cricket team and cricket broadcaster Jonathan Agnew MBE. Listed Grade II

Historic England

15/34 Cricket Pavilion. Uppingham School, Rutland

Sir Walter John Tapper, a notable architect with many listed buildings to his name, was commissioned by Uppingham School to follow the tradition of public schools and universities investing in cricket pavilions. Uppingham School's pavilion has a deep thatched roof which sweeps low over the eaves and together with the stone windows with leaded lights, they combine to create a picturesque and well-proportioned design. Its interior has finely detailed features such as the delicate leaf-like plasterwork on the ceiling and ornate ironmongery on the windows. The principal room of the pavilion is lined with square panelling which is inscribed with the names of cricket players dating back to 1856, some of whom went on to become internationally renowned including Percy Chapman who captained the England cricket team and cricket broadcaster Jonathan Agnew MBE. Listed Grade II

Historic England

16/34 The Cock Sign. Sutton High Street

The Cock Sign stands at a prominent location at the junction of Sutton High Street and Carshalton Road. It dates to around 1907 and originates from a pub called The Cock which was located at a junction known as The Cock Cross Roads and owned by 'Gentleman Jackson' (1769-1845), a celebrated English boxer who won the title 'Champion of England.' The Cock is a tall structure which was originally a grand gas lamp-post and pub sign, later converted to electricity and then to a road sign with multiple finger posts. It has been moved a few metres from its original location outside the Cock Hotel which is now demolished. The changes made to the sign over the years contribute to its special interest in helping to tell the story of Sutton High Street and how the town changed during the late 19th century and early 20th century. The sign was produced by the manufacturer Hart, Son, Peard and Co, who supplied some of the leading architects and designers of the day. Listed Grade II

Historic England

17/34 The Cock Sign. Sutton High Street

The Cock Sign stands at a prominent location at the junction of Sutton High Street and Carshalton Road. It dates to around 1907 and originates from a pub called The Cock which was located at a junction known as The Cock Cross Roads and owned by 'Gentleman Jackson' (1769-1845), a celebrated English boxer who won the title 'Champion of England.' The Cock is a tall structure which was originally a grand gas lamp-post and pub sign, later converted to electricity and then to a road sign with multiple finger posts. It has been moved a few metres from its original location outside the Cock Hotel which is now demolished. The changes made to the sign over the years contribute to its special interest in helping to tell the story of Sutton High Street and how the town changed during the late 19th century and early 20th century. The sign was produced by the manufacturer Hart, Son, Peard and Co, who supplied some of the leading architects and designers of the day. Listed Grade II

Historic England

18/34 East Mellwaters. County Durham

This walled settlement at East Mellwaters is a rare form of late prehistoric settlement. Traditionally, in Northern England, Iron Age and Romano-British native settlements take a variety of forms, with enclosures being defined by a bank and a ditch. Higher status enclosures, however, were formed of stone and have now been reduced to stony earthworks, as at East Mellwaters. The site is adjacent to other prehistoric settlement remains, which are thought to represent a succession of settlement sites established over the centuries. Scheduled Monument

19/34 Hopkins House. Hampstead

Architects Michael and Patty Hopkins built the house as a family home in 1975-1976, which also served as their office until the early 1980s. The couple designed and constructed the house as a study in making use of the maximum, flexible space of the site and were influenced by the Eames Case Study House of 1949. The house is notable for its energy efficiency, which includes the low thermal demands of the house, sparing use of materials and Venetian blinds. The highly elegant and economic lightweight steel frame and glass building made in the High-Tech tradition, is particularly eye-catching amongst the Victorian mansions typical of Hampstead and the Regency villas that make Downshire Hill distinctive from the rest of the village. The house won an RIBA award in 1977 and a Civic Trust Award in 1979. The couple jointly won the RIBA Gold Medal in 1994 and Michael Hopkins went on to receive a knighthood for his achievements in 1995. Listed Grade II

Historic England

20/34 74 Dyer Street. Cirencester, Gloucestershire

The former office of the Wiltshire and Gloucestershire Standard. The Wiltshire and Gloucestershire Standard was founded in Malmesbury in 1837 and its production moved to Cirencester in 1840. It has continued to bring local news to the people of the two counties ever since. In 1904 the paper's owner, George Henry Harmer, who had worked his way up through the firm from reporter to proprietor, sought to unite the printing and publishing arms of the paper on the same site for the first time, and commissioned local architect VA Lawson to design a new publishing office on a narrow site in Dyer Street, retaining the existing printing sheds to the rear. The resulting three-storey building has an imposing presence in a street of otherwise modest Cotswold buildings. It is in an Arts and Crafts style, taller than its neighbours, with jetties which project the elaborate timber-framed upper floors out over the street. Listed Grade II

Historic England

21/34 Wing Test Hangars. Rolls-Royce Hucknall, Nottinghamshire

In 1934, Rolls Royce leased two hangars at the Hucknall airfield, which was established in 1917, and created a testing programme there for aero engines and equipment. The building is largely intact and features many surviving fixtures dating back to the mid-20th century, including an engine-testing control panel, observation windows, wing spar mount assembly, roller doors, pierced metal sheet lining, as well as fittings and support for a de-tuner. The site saw many world-leading developments such as the Merlin Engine, which was tested, developed and adapted for the American Mustang fighter aircraft there. The world's first flight of a commercial jet aircraft flew from Hucknall to the Paris Air show in the late 1940s, using Frank Whittle's jet engine which had been developed on site. Listed Grade II

Historic England

22/34 Wing Test Hangars. Rolls-Royce Hucknall, Nottinghamshire

In 1934, Rolls Royce leased two hangars at the Hucknall airfield, which was established in 1917, and created a testing programme there for aero engines and equipment. The building is largely intact and features many surviving fixtures dating back to the mid-20th century, including an engine-testing control panel, observation windows, wing spar mount assembly, roller doors, pierced metal sheet lining, as well as fittings and support for a de-tuner. The site saw many world-leading developments such as the Merlin Engine, which was tested, developed and adapted for the American Mustang fighter aircraft there. The world's first flight of a commercial jet aircraft flew from Hucknall to the Paris Air show in the late 1940s, using Frank Whittle's jet engine which had been developed on site. Listed Grade II

Historic England

23/34 Lych gate to the east of Church of St John the Evangelist. Newcastle on Clun, Shropshire

The lych gate to the east of Church of St John the Evangelist in Newcastle on Clun dates from 1880 and forms a picturesque entrance to St John's churchyard. The design follows the Arts and Crafts traditions, bringing together joinery, ironmongery and slate work and is inspired by medieval predecessors. The roof mimics that of the lych gate claimed to be the oldest in the country, at the Church of St George in Beckenham, Kent, originally constructed in the 13th century. Within the timber-framed passageway of the lych gate is a revolving gate, which is an unusual feature and one of only a handful in existence in England. 'Lych' derives from the Anglo-Saxon or German word for corpse, and is named after the structure's primary function of storing the coffin before burial. Lych gates also serve as a meeting point and shelter for funeral parties before they are met by the priest. Listed Grade II

Historic England

24/34 Tidal Observatory. Newlyn, Cornwall

The fishing industry in Newlyn on the south coast of Cornwall expanded in the 1880s, resulting in the construction of a new harbour and two piers. In the early 20th century, the south pier was extended to give better protection to the harbour and a tidal observatory was built at its north end. The observatory was one of three constructed at the request of Ordnance Survey to establish Mean Sea Level. With the observatory being completed in 1914, hourly measurements were taken of the height of the tide between 1915 and 1921, determining that Newlyn was the most stable and therefore the principal place to establish Mean Sea Level for the entire country. Over the next 100 years, the observatory contributed key tidal data to studies in oceanography, geology and climate change. Listed Grade II

Historic England

25/34 Old Lifeboat House. Walton-on-the-Naze, Essex

The former lifeboat house, built in 1884, was designed by CH Cooke and represents the crucial role played by the Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI) in saving lives at sea since the 19th century. Its wide gabled structure and ornamental treatment, made up of fish-scale tiling, decorative moulded brick, and a beautifully incorporated bay window, create a finely detailed and strikingly composed building. The local community played an important part in raising funds for the site, which housed Walton's first lifeboat, a 37ft 'self-righter' Norfolk/ Suffolk class 'sailing & pulling' lifeboat, a design suited to the East coast's shallow waters. Baroness Bolsover launched the boat in a ceremony, held in Walton, on 18 November 1884 outside the new Lifeboat House where the boat had recently arrived by train. Listed Grade II

Historic England

26/34 Cattle Trough and Drinking Fountain. Spaniards Road, Hampstead

Cattle troughs were once commonplace in Britain, with the Metropolitan Drinking Fountain and Cattle Trough Association (MDFCTA) responsible for over 1000 of them. Around 500 of these were located in London, however a large number have now been lost. The trough in Spaniards Road was believed to have been erected in 1916, making it a particularly late example of its type. Although the pump and spout mechanism are missing, the cattle trough is an important reminder that horse-drawn transport was commonplace in the early 20th century, despite the increasing use of motorised transport. In providing free drinking water for horses, charities like the MDFCTA also played an important role in raising standards in animal welfare. Listed Grade II

Historic England

27/34 Caynton Manor Gatehouse. Newport, Shropshire

This early 17th century gatehouse to the former Caynton Manor is a remarkable survival, previously undiscovered. Originally a formal gateway to a wealthy country house, it has been used for agricultural purposes since the 18th century. While very little is known about the house which the gatehouse served, the quality of the gatehouse signifies a substantial building of high status. It is a well-proportioned building with a red sandstone base, a tiled roof and good quality detailing, characteristic of this building type at the time it was built, around 1635. Of particular interest is the carved detailing around the archways and the elaborate plasterwork in the principal rooms inside the gatehouse. This listing means that it can now be assessed for inclusion on Historic England's Heritage at Risk Register, which would enable Historic England to offer specialist technical advice to help secure its future. Listed Grade II*

Historic England

28/34 Caynton Manor Gatehouse. Newport, Shropshire

This early 17th century gatehouse to the former Caynton Manor is a remarkable survival, previously undiscovered. Originally a formal gateway to a wealthy country house, it has been used for agricultural purposes since the 18th century. While very little is known about the house which the gatehouse served, the quality of the gatehouse signifies a substantial building of high status. It is a well-proportioned building with a red sandstone base, a tiled roof and good quality detailing, characteristic of this building type at the time it was built, around 1635. Of particular interest is the carved detailing around the archways and the elaborate plasterwork in the principal rooms inside the gatehouse. This listing means that it can now be assessed for inclusion on Historic England's Heritage at Risk Register, which would enable Historic England to offer specialist technical advice to help secure its future. Listed Grade II*

Historic England

29/34 Garden at Kingcombe. Chipping Camden, Gloucestershire

The garden at Kingcombe complements Grade II listed Kingcombe House. It is an increasingly rare survival of an Arts and Crafts garden laid out in the 1930s. The pre-war garden is well-preserved and is an impressive and thoughtful design which includes Italian influences in the terraced garden including Italian steps to divide it from the more functional parts of the garden and to provide a vertical link from the top of the terraces to the meadow beyond the garden. Intact gardens dating from the 1930s are rare in England. It was designed initially by Sir Geoffrey Jellicoe and Russell Page with Sir Gordon Russell between 1927 and 1936 with later additions by Sir Gordon Russell from the 1940s through to the 1970s. During the Second World War and the austerity years that followed, few private houses were built so commissions for new gardens were few and far between. Grade II Registered Park and Garden

Historic England

30/34 Garden at Kingcombe. Chipping Camden, Gloucestershire

The garden at Kingcombe complements Grade II listed Kingcombe House. It is an increasingly rare survival of an Arts and Crafts garden laid out in the 1930s. The pre-war garden is well-preserved and is an impressive and thoughtful design which includes Italian influences in the terraced garden including Italian steps to divide it from the more functional parts of the garden and to provide a vertical link from the top of the terraces to the meadow beyond the garden. Intact gardens dating from the 1930s are rare in England. It was designed initially by Sir Geoffrey Jellicoe and Russell Page with Sir Gordon Russell between 1927 and 1936 with later additions by Sir Gordon Russell from the 1940s through to the 1970s. During the Second World War and the austerity years that followed, few private houses were built so commissions for new gardens were few and far between. Grade II Registered Park and Garden

Historic England

31/34 Robin Hood and his Merry Men. Castle Place, Nottingham

Acclaimed sculptor and Nottingham native, James Arthur Woodford RA OBE was commissioned to craft this imaginative group of sculptures, depicting the legendary characters of Robin Hood and his Merry Men, to commemorate the visit of their Royal Highnesses the Princess Elizabeth and the Duke of Edinburgh for the city's quincentenary celebrations in 1949. Woodford conceived the group of sculptures to occupy the land in the outer ditch of Nottingham Castle, the setting of one of the most popular legendary tales of Robin Hood. The sculptures form a significant group with the Grade I listed Nottingham Castle. Listed Grade II

Historic England

32/34 Robin Hood and his Merry Men. Castle Place, Nottingham

Acclaimed sculptor and Nottingham native, James Arthur Woodford RA OBE was commissioned to craft this imaginative group of sculptures, depicting the legendary characters of Robin Hood and his Merry Men, to commemorate the visit of their Royal Highnesses the Princess Elizabeth and the Duke of Edinburgh for the city's quincentenary celebrations in 1949. Woodford conceived the group of sculptures to occupy the land in the outer ditch of Nottingham Castle, the setting of one of the most popular legendary tales of Robin Hood. The sculptures form a significant group with the Grade I listed Nottingham Castle. Listed Grade II

Historic England

33/34 Cappleside Barn. Rathmell, North Yorkshire

Cappleside Barn in Ribblesdale, North Yorkshire was built in 1714. It is a large barn with a remarkable ornamental roof structure with carefully shaped timbers that also include carved motifs such as 'daisy-wheels'. At first, Historic England thought that these roof timbers had been reused from a high-status medieval house, but dendrochronology has shown that the timbers came from trees felled shortly before the construction of the barn. The barn, with a cutting-edge design for its time, includes integrated housing for cows which allowed more cattle to be kept over the winter, increasing herd sizes and farming prosperity. To protect this investment, 18th century belief systems saw the use of witches' marks or special carved motifs placed near openings to ward off witches and evil spirits. Listed Grade II*

Historic England

34/34 Cappleside Barn. Rathmell, North Yorkshire

Cappleside Barn in Ribblesdale, North Yorkshire was built in 1714. It is a large barn with a remarkable ornamental roof structure with carefully shaped timbers that also include carved motifs such as 'daisy-wheels'. At first, Historic England thought that these roof timbers had been reused from a high-status medieval house, but dendrochronology has shown that the timbers came from trees felled shortly before the construction of the barn. The barn, with a cutting-edge design for its time, includes integrated housing for cows which allowed more cattle to be kept over the winter, increasing herd sizes and farming prosperity. To protect this investment, 18th century belief systems saw the use of witches' marks or special carved motifs placed near openings to ward off witches and evil spirits. Listed Grade II*

Historic England

1/34 Florence Mine. Egremont, West Cumbria

Florence Mine in West Cumbria is one of the best-surviving mining sites of any type nationally and is the best-surviving example of an iron mining pit head in England: it retains a full suite of buildings complete with nearly all of its machinery and equipment. From the mid-19th century, iron mining fundamentally altered Western Cumbria and the Furness peninsular, making a significant contribution to the national economy. However, site clearances following industrial decline in the second half of the 20th century, has left few surviving remains of the industry. Florence Mine is believed to have been the last iron mine to close in Europe and was last worked in 2007. Hematite iron ore from the mine is used for the pigment Egremont Red, still found in some lipsticks today. Listed Grade II

Historic England

2/34 University of York, Campus West designed landscape. Heslington, York

The University of York Campus West designed landscape was laid out from 1963-1980 It is a high-quality post-war university landscape that fulfils the architects' masterplan vision of creating a town in miniature with a pedestrianised environment. One of the key features of the landscape is the lake, which has two small islands, a courtyard pool and a fountain which form a central focal point at the heart of the campus. Offering bursts of green against the surrounding concrete structures are the lake features, reed beds and lily pads, which were introduced to improve water purity. The landscape is relatively unaltered since it was laid out and the design successfully integrates the new landscape with the historic Heslington Hall gardens. It was designed by distinguished mid-20th century architects Andrew Derbyshire and Maurice Lee of RMJM with Frank Clark, the co-founders of the Garden History Society (now The Garden Trust). Listed Grade II

Historic England

3/34 University of York, Campus West designed landscape. Heslington, York

The University of York Campus West designed landscape was laid out from 1963-1980 It is a high-quality post-war university landscape that fulfils the architects' masterplan vision of creating a town in miniature with a pedestrianised environment. One of the key features of the landscape is the lake, which has two small islands, a courtyard pool and a fountain which form a central focal point at the heart of the campus. Offering bursts of green against the surrounding concrete structures are the lake features, reed beds and lily pads, which were introduced to improve water purity. The landscape is relatively unaltered since it was laid out and the design successfully integrates the new landscape with the historic Heslington Hall gardens. It was designed by distinguished mid-20th century architects Andrew Derbyshire and Maurice Lee of RMJM with Frank Clark, the co-founders of the Garden History Society (now The Garden Trust). Listed Grade II

Historic England

4/34 30 Coptic Street and 35 Little Russell Street, London

Originally constructed in 1888 for the Dairy Supply Company, 30 Coptic Street and 35 Little Russell Street were once the place of manufacture of the iconic milk churn. It is here that they made 17 gallon galvanised iron containers, designed for transporting milk by rail. The company was heavily associated with George Barnham, who invented the containers and went on to become chair of the British Dairy Farmers Association, Mayor of Hampstead and High Sheriff of Middlesex and was knighted in 1904. The buildings still pay homage to their days as the headquarters of the first major manufacturer of dairy equipment, with its original signage, made of Portland stone, still intact. The exterior features ornate brick decoration which advertised the Dairy Supply Company Limited. Listed Grade II

Historic England

5/34 Old Otterington Railway Station. South Otterington, Northallerton, North Yorkshire

Travellers on the East Coast Main Line north of York typically pass the former Otterington Railway Station at over 100 miles per hour. This station building with its signal box was built by the London and North Eastern Railway (LNER) in 1932 as a replacement for the Victorian station that had been cleared away to allow the expansion of the line to four tracks. This was part of LNER's rivalry with the London Midland Scottish Railway in providing ever faster rail services between London and Scotland. Perhaps in deference to more conservative architectural tastes of this part of rural North Yorkshire, the design was carefully moderated with neo-Georgian detailing. The 1930s modernity of Otterington Railway Station however never changed the fact that this was always a sleepy, little-used wayside railway station. It closed to passengers in 1958 and to goods traffic in 1964. It's remarkable survival is owed to its passing into sympathetic private ownership. Listed Grade II

Historic England

6/34 University of York, Central Hall. Heslington, York

The University of York was one of seven new universities founded in England between 1958 and 1961. Central Hall is the centrepiece of the University's western campus and has a striking and bold design. The exceptionally detailed development plan behind the campus was heralded as the beginning of contemporary university planning in Britain. The building is a concrete structure with a suspended mild steel tubular roof clad in aluminium, with the upper floors, where the auditorium is located, cantilevered out on the lake sides. It continues a historic tradition established by late 19th century and early 20th century 'red brick' universities in featuring a great hall for special events. Central Hall was designed by Andrew Derbyshire and Maurice Lee of RMJM in 1966-1968 with the notable mid-20th century architects, Stirrat Johnson-Marshall and Andrew Derbyshire. Listed Grade II

Historic England

7/34 Pedestrian Subway, Vestibule, Terrace and Stairs beneath Crystal Palace Parade. South London

The Crystal Palace subway, vestibule, terrace and stairs provide an elaborate pedestrian passageway, with finely-crafted Byzantine-style vaulting in red and cream brick and chequered floors in alternating stone. The structure dates from 1865 and was built to link a new train station directly to the entrance of the Crystal Palace. Designed by highly-accomplished architect Charles Barry Junior, the quality of construction is excellent. It is an architecturally imaginative solution to the problem of transporting visitors beneath Crystal Palace Parade and providing a dramatic introduction to the palace itself. The subway's historic interest is with its association with the Great Exhibition, one of the most important cultural events of the Victorian era. The subway was originally listed at Grade II* in 1972 and was upgraded to Grade II this year.

Historic England

8/34 Pedestrian Subway, Vestibule, Terrace and Stairs beneath Crystal Palace Parade. South London

The Crystal Palace subway, vestibule, terrace and stairs provide an elaborate pedestrian passageway, with finely-crafted Byzantine-style vaulting in red and cream brick and chequered floors in alternating stone. The structure dates from 1865 and was built to link a new train station directly to the entrance of the Crystal Palace. Designed by highly-accomplished architect Charles Barry Junior, the quality of construction is excellent. It is an architecturally imaginative solution to the problem of transporting visitors beneath Crystal Palace Parade and providing a dramatic introduction to the palace itself. The subway's historic interest is with its association with the Great Exhibition, one of the most important cultural events of the Victorian era. The subway was originally listed at Grade II in 1972 and was upgraded to Grade II* this year.

Historic England

9/34 Memorial Bus Shelter. Osmington, Dorset

The thatched memorial bus shelter at Osmington in West Dorset is located on the south side of the A353 and is an important landmark in the village. It dates to around the 1940s and was built by Harry and Ethel Parry-Jones in memory of their son, David, a lieutenant in the 1st Battalion of The Rifle Brigade who died at the age of 20 on 3 August 1944 during the Battle of Normandy. Local materials were used including Purbeck stone and thatch which complements the bus shelter's surroundings. Despite its vulnerability as a piece of street furniture, the bus shelter has not been significantly altered since it was first built. It demonstrates that even modest and functional structures can form eloquent and valuable memorials for their local communities. Listed Grade II

Historic England

10/34 The Assembly Rooms. Charlton

Although modest in scale, the Assembly Rooms building has great presence with its bright, red brick exterior. This charming community hall boasts an exuberant design with its late-19th century, Jacobean Revival style, terracotta tiles and stone detailing. Since its construction in 1881, and despite being damaged in the Second World War, the hall has only seen minor alterations, with the interior retaining its original plan and stage. Unlike other community halls of around this date, which tend to be built on a tighter budget, the Assembly Rooms at Charlton were funded by the wealthy benefactor, Sir Spencer Maryon-Wilson, who lived in the nearby Grade I listed Charlton House. The rich decoration of the Assembly Rooms features his family Coat of Arms, along with terracotta panels embellished with floral motifs, and is a good example of the impact of Victorian philanthropy on this simple building type. Listed Grade II

Historic England

11/34 The Assembly Rooms. Charlton

Although modest in scale, the Assembly Rooms building has great presence with its bright, red brick exterior. This charming community hall boasts an exuberant design with its late-19th century, Jacobean Revival style, terracotta tiles and stone detailing. Since its construction in 1881, and despite being damaged in the Second World War, the hall has only seen minor alterations, with the interior retaining its original plan and stage. Unlike other community halls of around this date, which tend to be built on a tighter budget, the Assembly Rooms at Charlton were funded by the wealthy benefactor, Sir Spencer Maryon-Wilson, who lived in the nearby Grade I listed Charlton House. The rich decoration of the Assembly Rooms features his family Coat of Arms, along with terracotta panels embellished with floral motifs, and is a good example of the impact of Victorian philanthropy on this simple building type. Listed Grade II

Historic England

12/34 St John the Baptist Church, boundary walls, vicarage and school. Pendeen, Cornwall

The parish of Pendeen in Cornwall was established in 1846, and its first vicar, Reverend Robert Aitken, was tasked to provide a church for the community. Aitken was renowned for his unusual preaching style and this was deemed to be well-suited to pull people away from the dominance of Methodism in the county's mining communities. Aitken took it upon himself to design the church, the neighbouring vicarage and school, using local materials. Many of the fixtures and fittings were also made by local craftspeople, and Aitken donated his own collection of 16th century and 17th century Flemish and German glass roundels to enhance the windows. From 1850 until 1852, the predominantly-mining community worked to quarry stone from Carn Earnes, the hill above the church, in order to build the church and its boundary walls. Listed Grade II

Historic England

13/34 St John the Baptist Church, boundary walls, vicarage and school. Pendeen, Cornwall

The parish of Pendeen in Cornwall was established in 1846, and its first vicar, Reverend Robert Aitken, was tasked to provide a church for the community. Aitken was renowned for his unusual preaching style and this was deemed to be well-suited to pull people away from the dominance of Methodism in the county's mining communities. Aitken took it upon himself to design the church, the neighbouring vicarage and school, using local materials. Many of the fixtures and fittings were also made by local craftspeople, and Aitken donated his own collection of 16th century and 17th century Flemish and German glass roundels to enhance the windows. From 1850 until 1852, the predominantly-mining community worked to quarry stone from Carn Earnes, the hill above the church, in order to build the church and its boundary walls. Listed Grade II

Historic England

14/34 Cricket Pavilion. Uppingham School, Rutland

Sir Walter John Tapper, a notable architect with many listed buildings to his name, was commissioned by Uppingham School to follow the tradition of public schools and universities investing in cricket pavilions. Uppingham School's pavilion has a deep thatched roof which sweeps low over the eaves and together with the stone windows with leaded lights, they combine to create a picturesque and well-proportioned design. Its interior has finely detailed features such as the delicate leaf-like plasterwork on the ceiling and ornate ironmongery on the windows. The principal room of the pavilion is lined with square panelling which is inscribed with the names of cricket players dating back to 1856, some of whom went on to become internationally renowned including Percy Chapman who captained the England cricket team and cricket broadcaster Jonathan Agnew MBE. Listed Grade II

Historic England

15/34 Cricket Pavilion. Uppingham School, Rutland

Sir Walter John Tapper, a notable architect with many listed buildings to his name, was commissioned by Uppingham School to follow the tradition of public schools and universities investing in cricket pavilions. Uppingham School's pavilion has a deep thatched roof which sweeps low over the eaves and together with the stone windows with leaded lights, they combine to create a picturesque and well-proportioned design. Its interior has finely detailed features such as the delicate leaf-like plasterwork on the ceiling and ornate ironmongery on the windows. The principal room of the pavilion is lined with square panelling which is inscribed with the names of cricket players dating back to 1856, some of whom went on to become internationally renowned including Percy Chapman who captained the England cricket team and cricket broadcaster Jonathan Agnew MBE. Listed Grade II

Historic England

16/34 The Cock Sign. Sutton High Street

The Cock Sign stands at a prominent location at the junction of Sutton High Street and Carshalton Road. It dates to around 1907 and originates from a pub called The Cock which was located at a junction known as The Cock Cross Roads and owned by 'Gentleman Jackson' (1769-1845), a celebrated English boxer who won the title 'Champion of England.' The Cock is a tall structure which was originally a grand gas lamp-post and pub sign, later converted to electricity and then to a road sign with multiple finger posts. It has been moved a few metres from its original location outside the Cock Hotel which is now demolished. The changes made to the sign over the years contribute to its special interest in helping to tell the story of Sutton High Street and how the town changed during the late 19th century and early 20th century. The sign was produced by the manufacturer Hart, Son, Peard and Co, who supplied some of the leading architects and designers of the day. Listed Grade II

Historic England

17/34 The Cock Sign. Sutton High Street

The Cock Sign stands at a prominent location at the junction of Sutton High Street and Carshalton Road. It dates to around 1907 and originates from a pub called The Cock which was located at a junction known as The Cock Cross Roads and owned by 'Gentleman Jackson' (1769-1845), a celebrated English boxer who won the title 'Champion of England.' The Cock is a tall structure which was originally a grand gas lamp-post and pub sign, later converted to electricity and then to a road sign with multiple finger posts. It has been moved a few metres from its original location outside the Cock Hotel which is now demolished. The changes made to the sign over the years contribute to its special interest in helping to tell the story of Sutton High Street and how the town changed during the late 19th century and early 20th century. The sign was produced by the manufacturer Hart, Son, Peard and Co, who supplied some of the leading architects and designers of the day. Listed Grade II

Historic England

18/34 East Mellwaters. County Durham

This walled settlement at East Mellwaters is a rare form of late prehistoric settlement. Traditionally, in Northern England, Iron Age and Romano-British native settlements take a variety of forms, with enclosures being defined by a bank and a ditch. Higher status enclosures, however, were formed of stone and have now been reduced to stony earthworks, as at East Mellwaters. The site is adjacent to other prehistoric settlement remains, which are thought to represent a succession of settlement sites established over the centuries. Scheduled Monument

19/34 Hopkins House. Hampstead

Architects Michael and Patty Hopkins built the house as a family home in 1975-1976, which also served as their office until the early 1980s. The couple designed and constructed the house as a study in making use of the maximum, flexible space of the site and were influenced by the Eames Case Study House of 1949. The house is notable for its energy efficiency, which includes the low thermal demands of the house, sparing use of materials and Venetian blinds. The highly elegant and economic lightweight steel frame and glass building made in the High-Tech tradition, is particularly eye-catching amongst the Victorian mansions typical of Hampstead and the Regency villas that make Downshire Hill distinctive from the rest of the village. The house won an RIBA award in 1977 and a Civic Trust Award in 1979. The couple jointly won the RIBA Gold Medal in 1994 and Michael Hopkins went on to receive a knighthood for his achievements in 1995. Listed Grade II

Historic England

20/34 74 Dyer Street. Cirencester, Gloucestershire

The former office of the Wiltshire and Gloucestershire Standard. The Wiltshire and Gloucestershire Standard was founded in Malmesbury in 1837 and its production moved to Cirencester in 1840. It has continued to bring local news to the people of the two counties ever since. In 1904 the paper's owner, George Henry Harmer, who had worked his way up through the firm from reporter to proprietor, sought to unite the printing and publishing arms of the paper on the same site for the first time, and commissioned local architect VA Lawson to design a new publishing office on a narrow site in Dyer Street, retaining the existing printing sheds to the rear. The resulting three-storey building has an imposing presence in a street of otherwise modest Cotswold buildings. It is in an Arts and Crafts style, taller than its neighbours, with jetties which project the elaborate timber-framed upper floors out over the street. Listed Grade II

Historic England

21/34 Wing Test Hangars. Rolls-Royce Hucknall, Nottinghamshire

In 1934, Rolls Royce leased two hangars at the Hucknall airfield, which was established in 1917, and created a testing programme there for aero engines and equipment. The building is largely intact and features many surviving fixtures dating back to the mid-20th century, including an engine-testing control panel, observation windows, wing spar mount assembly, roller doors, pierced metal sheet lining, as well as fittings and support for a de-tuner. The site saw many world-leading developments such as the Merlin Engine, which was tested, developed and adapted for the American Mustang fighter aircraft there. The world's first flight of a commercial jet aircraft flew from Hucknall to the Paris Air show in the late 1940s, using Frank Whittle's jet engine which had been developed on site. Listed Grade II

Historic England

22/34 Wing Test Hangars. Rolls-Royce Hucknall, Nottinghamshire

In 1934, Rolls Royce leased two hangars at the Hucknall airfield, which was established in 1917, and created a testing programme there for aero engines and equipment. The building is largely intact and features many surviving fixtures dating back to the mid-20th century, including an engine-testing control panel, observation windows, wing spar mount assembly, roller doors, pierced metal sheet lining, as well as fittings and support for a de-tuner. The site saw many world-leading developments such as the Merlin Engine, which was tested, developed and adapted for the American Mustang fighter aircraft there. The world's first flight of a commercial jet aircraft flew from Hucknall to the Paris Air show in the late 1940s, using Frank Whittle's jet engine which had been developed on site. Listed Grade II

Historic England

23/34 Lych gate to the east of Church of St John the Evangelist. Newcastle on Clun, Shropshire

The lych gate to the east of Church of St John the Evangelist in Newcastle on Clun dates from 1880 and forms a picturesque entrance to St John's churchyard. The design follows the Arts and Crafts traditions, bringing together joinery, ironmongery and slate work and is inspired by medieval predecessors. The roof mimics that of the lych gate claimed to be the oldest in the country, at the Church of St George in Beckenham, Kent, originally constructed in the 13th century. Within the timber-framed passageway of the lych gate is a revolving gate, which is an unusual feature and one of only a handful in existence in England. 'Lych' derives from the Anglo-Saxon or German word for corpse, and is named after the structure's primary function of storing the coffin before burial. Lych gates also serve as a meeting point and shelter for funeral parties before they are met by the priest. Listed Grade II

Historic England

24/34 Tidal Observatory. Newlyn, Cornwall

The fishing industry in Newlyn on the south coast of Cornwall expanded in the 1880s, resulting in the construction of a new harbour and two piers. In the early 20th century, the south pier was extended to give better protection to the harbour and a tidal observatory was built at its north end. The observatory was one of three constructed at the request of Ordnance Survey to establish Mean Sea Level. With the observatory being completed in 1914, hourly measurements were taken of the height of the tide between 1915 and 1921, determining that Newlyn was the most stable and therefore the principal place to establish Mean Sea Level for the entire country. Over the next 100 years, the observatory contributed key tidal data to studies in oceanography, geology and climate change. Listed Grade II

Historic England

25/34 Old Lifeboat House. Walton-on-the-Naze, Essex

The former lifeboat house, built in 1884, was designed by CH Cooke and represents the crucial role played by the Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI) in saving lives at sea since the 19th century. Its wide gabled structure and ornamental treatment, made up of fish-scale tiling, decorative moulded brick, and a beautifully incorporated bay window, create a finely detailed and strikingly composed building. The local community played an important part in raising funds for the site, which housed Walton's first lifeboat, a 37ft 'self-righter' Norfolk/ Suffolk class 'sailing & pulling' lifeboat, a design suited to the East coast's shallow waters. Baroness Bolsover launched the boat in a ceremony, held in Walton, on 18 November 1884 outside the new Lifeboat House where the boat had recently arrived by train. Listed Grade II

Historic England

26/34 Cattle Trough and Drinking Fountain. Spaniards Road, Hampstead

Cattle troughs were once commonplace in Britain, with the Metropolitan Drinking Fountain and Cattle Trough Association (MDFCTA) responsible for over 1000 of them. Around 500 of these were located in London, however a large number have now been lost. The trough in Spaniards Road was believed to have been erected in 1916, making it a particularly late example of its type. Although the pump and spout mechanism are missing, the cattle trough is an important reminder that horse-drawn transport was commonplace in the early 20th century, despite the increasing use of motorised transport. In providing free drinking water for horses, charities like the MDFCTA also played an important role in raising standards in animal welfare. Listed Grade II

Historic England

27/34 Caynton Manor Gatehouse. Newport, Shropshire

This early 17th century gatehouse to the former Caynton Manor is a remarkable survival, previously undiscovered. Originally a formal gateway to a wealthy country house, it has been used for agricultural purposes since the 18th century. While very little is known about the house which the gatehouse served, the quality of the gatehouse signifies a substantial building of high status. It is a well-proportioned building with a red sandstone base, a tiled roof and good quality detailing, characteristic of this building type at the time it was built, around 1635. Of particular interest is the carved detailing around the archways and the elaborate plasterwork in the principal rooms inside the gatehouse. This listing means that it can now be assessed for inclusion on Historic England's Heritage at Risk Register, which would enable Historic England to offer specialist technical advice to help secure its future. Listed Grade II*

Historic England

28/34 Caynton Manor Gatehouse. Newport, Shropshire

This early 17th century gatehouse to the former Caynton Manor is a remarkable survival, previously undiscovered. Originally a formal gateway to a wealthy country house, it has been used for agricultural purposes since the 18th century. While very little is known about the house which the gatehouse served, the quality of the gatehouse signifies a substantial building of high status. It is a well-proportioned building with a red sandstone base, a tiled roof and good quality detailing, characteristic of this building type at the time it was built, around 1635. Of particular interest is the carved detailing around the archways and the elaborate plasterwork in the principal rooms inside the gatehouse. This listing means that it can now be assessed for inclusion on Historic England's Heritage at Risk Register, which would enable Historic England to offer specialist technical advice to help secure its future. Listed Grade II*

Historic England

29/34 Garden at Kingcombe. Chipping Camden, Gloucestershire

The garden at Kingcombe complements Grade II listed Kingcombe House. It is an increasingly rare survival of an Arts and Crafts garden laid out in the 1930s. The pre-war garden is well-preserved and is an impressive and thoughtful design which includes Italian influences in the terraced garden including Italian steps to divide it from the more functional parts of the garden and to provide a vertical link from the top of the terraces to the meadow beyond the garden. Intact gardens dating from the 1930s are rare in England. It was designed initially by Sir Geoffrey Jellicoe and Russell Page with Sir Gordon Russell between 1927 and 1936 with later additions by Sir Gordon Russell from the 1940s through to the 1970s. During the Second World War and the austerity years that followed, few private houses were built so commissions for new gardens were few and far between. Grade II Registered Park and Garden

Historic England

30/34 Garden at Kingcombe. Chipping Camden, Gloucestershire

The garden at Kingcombe complements Grade II listed Kingcombe House. It is an increasingly rare survival of an Arts and Crafts garden laid out in the 1930s. The pre-war garden is well-preserved and is an impressive and thoughtful design which includes Italian influences in the terraced garden including Italian steps to divide it from the more functional parts of the garden and to provide a vertical link from the top of the terraces to the meadow beyond the garden. Intact gardens dating from the 1930s are rare in England. It was designed initially by Sir Geoffrey Jellicoe and Russell Page with Sir Gordon Russell between 1927 and 1936 with later additions by Sir Gordon Russell from the 1940s through to the 1970s. During the Second World War and the austerity years that followed, few private houses were built so commissions for new gardens were few and far between. Grade II Registered Park and Garden

Historic England

31/34 Robin Hood and his Merry Men. Castle Place, Nottingham

Acclaimed sculptor and Nottingham native, James Arthur Woodford RA OBE was commissioned to craft this imaginative group of sculptures, depicting the legendary characters of Robin Hood and his Merry Men, to commemorate the visit of their Royal Highnesses the Princess Elizabeth and the Duke of Edinburgh for the city's quincentenary celebrations in 1949. Woodford conceived the group of sculptures to occupy the land in the outer ditch of Nottingham Castle, the setting of one of the most popular legendary tales of Robin Hood. The sculptures form a significant group with the Grade I listed Nottingham Castle. Listed Grade II

Historic England

32/34 Robin Hood and his Merry Men. Castle Place, Nottingham

Acclaimed sculptor and Nottingham native, James Arthur Woodford RA OBE was commissioned to craft this imaginative group of sculptures, depicting the legendary characters of Robin Hood and his Merry Men, to commemorate the visit of their Royal Highnesses the Princess Elizabeth and the Duke of Edinburgh for the city's quincentenary celebrations in 1949. Woodford conceived the group of sculptures to occupy the land in the outer ditch of Nottingham Castle, the setting of one of the most popular legendary tales of Robin Hood. The sculptures form a significant group with the Grade I listed Nottingham Castle. Listed Grade II

Historic England

33/34 Cappleside Barn. Rathmell, North Yorkshire

Cappleside Barn in Ribblesdale, North Yorkshire was built in 1714. It is a large barn with a remarkable ornamental roof structure with carefully shaped timbers that also include carved motifs such as 'daisy-wheels'. At first, Historic England thought that these roof timbers had been reused from a high-status medieval house, but dendrochronology has shown that the timbers came from trees felled shortly before the construction of the barn. The barn, with a cutting-edge design for its time, includes integrated housing for cows which allowed more cattle to be kept over the winter, increasing herd sizes and farming prosperity. To protect this investment, 18th century belief systems saw the use of witches' marks or special carved motifs placed near openings to ward off witches and evil spirits. Listed Grade II*

Historic England

34/34 Cappleside Barn. Rathmell, North Yorkshire

Cappleside Barn in Ribblesdale, North Yorkshire was built in 1714. It is a large barn with a remarkable ornamental roof structure with carefully shaped timbers that also include carved motifs such as 'daisy-wheels'. At first, Historic England thought that these roof timbers had been reused from a high-status medieval house, but dendrochronology has shown that the timbers came from trees felled shortly before the construction of the barn. The barn, with a cutting-edge design for its time, includes integrated housing for cows which allowed more cattle to be kept over the winter, increasing herd sizes and farming prosperity. To protect this investment, 18th century belief systems saw the use of witches' marks or special carved motifs placed near openings to ward off witches and evil spirits. Listed Grade II*

Historic England

The niche dimensions themselves suggest that the bronze rams on Antony and Cleopatra's warships were at least four times the size of the largest ancient rams found anywhere by archaeologists.

The largest niche appears to have been constructed to house a huge 1.7m-wide ram. What's more, the niche evidence also suggests that some of the rams were 1.6m in height -- and up to 2.5m long.

Although the primary purpose of giant rams was probably to break through harbour entrance defences, their intended role in this particular battle was almost certainly to pierce the hulls of enemy ships below the waterline, thus potentially sinking them.

Of the 35 enemy rams which Octavian put on permanent display in his victory monument, 20 were simply very large -- with a further 15 being absolutely huge.

One of the gates of Nicopolis

The largest were displayed in niches at the western and eastern ends of the victory monument.

The edifice has been systematically investigated by archaeologists over the past 16 years. Indeed, six of the 35 niches were only fully excavated 18 months ago.

Details of this major investigation, funded by the Greek Ministry of Culture and the Stavros Niarchos Foundation, were recently revealed at an international archaeological conference organised in San Diego, California, by the Archaeological Institute of America.

The senior archaeologist who has been leading the research at Nicopolis, Dr Konstantinos Zachos, emeritus curator of antiqities at the Greek Ministry of Culture, told The Independent that analysis of the crucial archaeological data from the victory monument is set to continue.

"Both historically and archaeologically, this remarkable Roman structure is of tremendous international importance -- and continuing research is likely to shed yet more light on the battle that gave birth to the Roman Empire," said Dr Zachos.

Mosaic from a Roman basilica inside Nicopolis

Prior to the detailed study of the niches, some of the key information about the monument came from an ancient Roman epigram by the first century AD poet, Philippus of Thessalonika.

It describes the victory monument from the perspective of the rams themselves:

"Bronze-jawed rams, ships' voyage-loving armour, we lie here as witnesses to the war at Actium."

The historian in charge of researching the niches themselves, Professor William Murray of the University of South Florida, says that ongoing analysis of the niche data is of great historical importance.

A section of the city walls of Nicopolis

"The emerging evidence is likely to revolutionise our understanding of what really powerful marine rams were capable of and help give us a much greater appreciation of the forces behind the resulting collisions," said Professor Murray, a leading authority on Greek and Roman warships and author of the most recent key work on naval warfare in the ancient Mediterranean, The Age of Titans: the Rise and Fall of the Great Hellenistic Navies .

The huge sea battle at Actium, which the victory monument was built to commemorate, was, in more recent times, portrayed most famously in the spectacular epic 1960s film, Cleopatra , starring Elizabeth Taylor as Cleopatra, Richard Burton as Mark Antony and Roddy McDowall as Octavian.

However, the monument wasn't the only thing that Octavian built to celebrate his historic victory and to commemorate the official creation of Rome's great empire. For, adjacent to it, he constructed a full-scale city (Nicopolis, Greek for "City of Victory"), which grew to have a population of more than 20,000 (mostly Greeks encouraged to move there from a substantial number of pre-existing local towns).

Its spectacular ancient city gates and walls (three miles of which are still visible), its theatres, baths and stadium and its Roman villas, churches and impressive aqueduct system still survive to this day, and can be visited by tourists. It is the largest ancient ruined city in Greece -- located four miles north of the small town of Preveza in the Greek region of Epirus.

The long-abandoned city's huge theatre is currently being conserved.

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Although the victory monument and many of the city's impressive buildings have survived through the centuries, all 35 spectacular bronze rams have long since vanished (apart from a few fragments found by archaeologists). Only their empty niches remain -- testimony to the fate of Antony and Cleopatra and to the birth of one of the greatest empires and political systems the world has ever seen.

As to what ultimately became of the bronze rams themselves, it's likely that they were melted down by local people or militias or by invading Barbarians at some stage in the 4th or 5th centuries AD, the very period that saw the weakening and collapse of much of the Roman Empire. In that sense, the site represents not only the birth of that great empire, but also the beginning of its demise.


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