中英文模式阅读
中文模式阅读
英文模式阅读


Drew Harwell

National technology reporter covering artificial intelligence March 29, 2018
全国技术记者报道人工智能2018年3月29日

Facebook was for years a best friend to the data brokers who make hundreds of millions of dollars a year gathering and selling Americans' personal information. Now, the world's largest social network is souring that relationship --- a sign that the company believes it has overshadowed their data-gathering machine.
Facebook多年来一直是数据经纪人的最好朋友,他们每年赚取数亿美元收集和销售美国人的个人信息。现在,这个世界上最大的社交网络正在恶化这种关系 - 这标志着该公司认为它已经掩盖了他们的数据收集机器。

Facebook said late Wednesday that it would stop data brokers from helping advertisers target people with ads, severing one of the key methods marketers used to link users' Facebook data about their friends and lifestyle with their offline data about their families, finances and health.
Facebook周三晚些时候表示,它将阻止数据经纪人帮助广告客户以广告为目标,切断营销人员用来将用户关于朋友和生活方式的Facebook数据与其家庭,财务和健康状况的离线数据联系起来的关键方法之一。

The data brokers have for years served a silent but critical role in directing users' attention to Facebook's ads. They also, critics say, stealthily contributed to the seemingly all-knowing creepiness of users seeing ads for things they never mentioned on their Facebook pages. A marketer who wanted to target new mothers, for instance, could use the data brokers' information to send Facebook ads to all women who bought baby formula with a store rewards card.
多年来,数据经纪人在引导用户关注Facebook广告方面发挥了沉默但至关重要的作用。批评人士说,他们也悄悄地为看似无所不知的用户看到他们在Facebook页面上从未提及过的广告而感到慌张。例如,想要瞄准新妈妈的营销人员可以使用数据经纪人的信息将Facebook广告发送给所有使用商店奖励卡购买婴儿配方奶粉的女性。

Acxiom, Experian and other data brokers once had a prized seat at Facebook's table, through a program called Partner Categories, that allowed advertisers to tap into the shadow profiles crafted with data from Facebook and the brokers to drill down on their target audience. The data brokers got a cut of the money when the ads they helped place turned into a sale, and Facebook also shared some data with the brokers to help gauge how well its ads performed.
Acxiom,Experian和其他数据经纪人曾经通过一个名为"合作伙伴类别"的计划在Facebook桌面上获得了一席之地,该计划允许广告客户利用Facebook和经纪人的数据制作的影子档案来深入了解他们的目标受众。当他们帮助的广告转变为销售时,数据经纪人获得了大量资金,Facebook也与经纪人分享了一些数据,以帮助衡量其广告的表现。

A Facebook director said in a statement that the company will wind down that program over the next six months, which "will help improve people's privacy on Facebook." But privacy experts saw the move as an assertion of dominance from the social network, which in recent years has consolidated its power over an increasingly intimate level of detail about its users' lives --- and wants advertisers to pay for its expertise.
一位Facebook董事在一份声明中表示,该公司将在未来六个月内放弃该计划,"这将有助于改善Facebook上的人们的隐私。"但隐私专家认为此举是对社交网络主导地位的一种主张,近年来,社交网络已经巩固了其对用户生活越来越亲密的细节的影响力 - 并希望广告商为其专业知识付费。

"Facebook is officially in the data-mining business," said Joel Winston, a privacy lawyer in Pittsburgh. "It's a definitive signal that Facebook's data capture and identity-targeting technology is light-years ahead of its competitors'."
匹兹堡的隐私律师乔尔温斯顿说:"Facebook正式处于数据挖掘业务中。" "这是一个明确的信号,Facebook的数据采集和身份定位技术比竞争对手领先几年。"

[Facebook makes its privacy controls simpler as company faces data reckoning]

The move comes as Facebook battles a major privacy scandal in the wake of revelations that a political data firm, Cambridge Analytica, took advantage of the site's loose privacy rules and improperly obtained data on more than 30 million Facebook users. The company has in recent days outlined steps showing how users can see and limit what Facebook knows about them, following what chief executive Mark Zuckerberg called a "major breach of trust."
此举是因为Facebook公布了一项重大隐私丑闻,因为一家政治数据公司Cambridge Analytica利用该网站的松散隐私规则以及不正当地获取超过3000万Facebook用户的数据。该公司最近几天概述了一些步骤,展示了用户如何看待和限制Facebook对它们的了解,继首席执行官马克扎克伯格称之为"严重违反信任"之后。

In 2015, Facebook restricted the kinds of data that outside developers, including the researcher who fed data to Cambridge Analytica, could gather from users and their friends.Christopher Wylie, Cambridge Analytica's whistleblower, told The Washington Post that Cambridge Analytica had paired Facebook data with information from data brokers to build out its voter profiles.
2015年,Facebook限制了外部开发人员的数据类型,包括向Cambridge Analytica提供数据的研究人员可以从用户和他们的朋友那里收集数据。剑桥Analytica的举报人克里斯托弗·威利告诉华盛顿邮报,剑桥Analytica将Facebook数据与来自数据经纪人的信息,以建立其选民档案。

But the social network continued to strengthen its ties with the data brokers who gather and repackage user information. That year, Acxiom
但社交网络继续加强与收集和重新打包用户信息的数据经纪人的联系。那一年,Acxiomsaid its involvement in Partner Categories helped its advertising clients use Facebook "to better connect with people more inclined to buy certain products or services," adding that its clients included most of the country's top 10 insurers, retailers, automakers, hotels, telecommunications giants and banks. One year earlier, in 2014, the Federal Trade Commission issued a
它参与合作伙伴类别帮助其广告客户使用Facebook"更好地与更倾向于购买某些产品或服务的人联系",并补充说其客户包括该国十大保险公司,零售商,汽车制造商,酒店,电信巨头和银行的大部分。一年前,在2014年,联邦贸易委员会发布了一份report finding that data brokers had collected information on nearly every American and saying that the brokers "operate with a fundamental lack of transparency."
发现数据经纪人已经收集了几乎每个美国人的信息,并说这些经纪人"基本上缺乏透明度"。

While Facebook gathers much of its 2 billion users' online information, the data brokers attempt to scoop up everything else,including billions of bits of information from voter rolls, property records, purchase histories, loyalty card programs, consumer surveys, car dealership records and other databases.
虽然Facebook收集了其20亿用户的大部分在线信息,但数据经纪人试图挖掘其他所有内容,包括来自选民名单,财产记录,购买历史,会员卡计划,消费者调查,汽车经销商记录等数十亿信息。其他数据库。

[Facebook's discussions with Congress signal Mark Zuckerberg will testify amid data-privacy scandal]

The brokers use that raw data to build models predicting (with varying success) many hundreds of details about a customer's behavior, finances and personality: age, family status, household income, whether she likes crossword puzzles, interest in buying a household pet, likelihood of having a funeral plan. The data brokers then sell those consumer profiles to marketers and major conglomerates seeking a vast and targeted customer base --- including on Facebook, which now accounts for a fifth of the world's online ads.
经纪人使用原始数据建立模型,预测(成功的变化)有关客户行为,财务和个性的数百个细节:年龄,家庭状况,家庭收入,是否喜欢填字游戏,购买家庭宠物的兴趣,可能性有一个葬礼计划。然后,数据经纪人将这些消费者档案出售给寻求广泛和有针对性的客户群的营销商和主要企业集团 - 包括Facebook,目前占全球在线广告的五分之一。

Acxiom, the Arkansas-based broker that has worked with Facebook since 2013 and reported more than $880 million in revenue last year, estimated Facebook's ditching of its data-sharing program would carve as much as $25 million from the company's revenue and profit. In a
Acxiom是总部位于阿肯色州的经纪商,自2013年以来一直与Facebook合作,去年的收入超过8.8亿美元,估计Facebook放弃其数据共享计划将从该公司的收入和利润中捞出2500万美元。在一个statement late Wednesday, Acxiom said Facebook had alerted it that day to the news. "Today, more than ever, it is important for businesses to be able to rely upon companies that understand the critical importance of ethically sourced data and strong data governance. These are among Acxiom's core strengths," chief executive Scott Howe said.
周三晚些时候,Acxiom表示Facebook当天已经提醒了这一消息。 "今天,企业比以往任何时候都更重要的是能够依赖那些了解道德来源数据和强大数据治理的重要性的公司。这些都是Acxiom的核心优势,"首席执行官Scott Howe说。Its stock plunged more than 30 percent Thursday morning.
周四早上跌幅超过30%。

Representatives for data broker Experian did not respond to questions, and data broker Oracle Data Cloud declined to comment.
数据经纪商Experian的代表没有回答问题,数据经纪人Oracle Data Cloud拒绝发表评论。Experian stock moved downward slightly, while
股票小幅下跌,而Oracle shares traded up about 1 percent. Facebook shares climbed about 3 percent, helping puncture weeks of losses.
股价上涨约1%。 Facebook股价攀升约3%,帮助刺破数周的亏损。

Data brokers' models are often intricately and oddly detailed: Acxiom has
数据经纪人的模型通常是错综复杂且奇怪的:Acxiom有categorized people into one of 70 "household life stage clusters," including "Career-Centered Singles," "Soccer and SUVs," "Apple Pie Families" and "Rolling Stones." But advertisers wanting more information --- served straight from the source, in the person's own words --- have increasingly turned to Facebook, where they can grab first-party data from the actual customer, and not just third-party data gathered and analyzed from afar.
人们成为70个"家庭生活阶段集群"之一,包括"以职业为中心的单打","足球和SUV","苹果派家庭"和"滚石"。但广告商希望获得更多信息 - 直接从消息来源提供,用个人自己的话说 - 越来越多地转向Facebook,他们可以从实际客户那里获取第一方数据,而不仅仅是收集的第三方数据和从远处分析。

Facebook and the data brokers have often dealt in the same kinds of personal information advertisers find impossible to resist. Experian, for instance, runs a
Facebook和数据经纪人经常处理广告商发现无法抗拒的同类个人信息。例如,Experian运行了一个Newborn Network that sells advertisers detailed information, gleaned from personal spending and demographic data, of women they predict are new and expectant mothers; the company says it "captures more than 80 percent of all U.S. births." But Facebook users also freely share baby photos and mark their life events --- a more direct way of relaying the same information to sellers of baby formula, cribs and maternity clothes.
向广告商出售从个人支出和人口统计数据中收集的详细信息,他们预测的女性是新的和准妈妈;该公司称其"占据了美国所有婴儿的80%以上。"但Facebook用户还可以自由分享婴儿照片并标记他们的生活事件 - 这是向婴儿奶粉,婴儿床和孕妇装的卖家传递相同信息的更直接方式。

Advertisers will still be able to work with the data brokers to gather information and target customers; they'll just have to do it outside Facebook. Critics pointed to a few ways, such as Facebook's Custom Audiences tool, that will allow advertisers to still target customers en masse based on financial and other data they've pulled from across the Web.
广告商仍然可以与数据经纪人合作收集信息和目标客户;他们只需要在Facebook之外做。评论家指出了一些方法,例如Facebook的自定义受众工具,这将允许广告客户仍然根据他们从网络上提取的财务和其他数据来集中定位客户。

Some privacy experts cheered Facebook's data-broker move as a step toward preserving user privacy. "It's long overdue that Facebook owned up to the serious erosion of consumer privacy made possible by its alliance with powerful data brokers," said Jeffrey Chester, executive director of the Washington privacy-rights nonprofit Center for Digital Democracy.
一些隐私专家欢呼Facebook的数据经纪人此举,以此作为保护用户隐私的一步。华盛顿隐私权非营利组织数字民主中心执行主任杰弗里切斯特说:"Facebook早就应对消费者隐私权的严重侵蚀,因为它与强大的数据经纪人建立了联盟。"

[Why Facebook users' data obtained by Cambridge Analytica has probably spun far out of reach]

Chris Sperandio, a product head of privacy at the marketing-data start-up Segment, said the move also helps Facebook dodge growing questions over the source of its user information. That is quickly becoming a high-stakes legal issue: A sweeping privacy rule coming to Europe in May, the General Data Protection Regulation, will make the company more liable and accountable for knowing where its data comes from.
市场营销数据创业部门的隐私产品负责人克里斯•斯佩兰迪奥(Chris Sperandio)表示,此举也有助于Facebook避免对其用户信息来源提出越来越多的质疑。这很快就会成为一个高风险的法律问题:5月份通往欧洲的全面隐私规则,即通用数据保护法规,将使公司更加负责并负责了解其数据的来源。

"Third-party data is supplied by a vendor, and this data that the vendors supply is often gathered through questionable means," Sperandio said. "Having a third-party vendor only muddies the waters, especially when it's not as clear to the user how the third-party vendor got the data."
"第三方数据由供应商提供,供应商提供的这些数据通常通过可疑手段收集,"Sperandio说。 "让第三方供应商陷入困境,特别是当用户不清楚第三方供应商如何获取数据时。"

But some critics questioned what effect the move would have in a site that counts selling access to its users' information as its biggest moneymaker. Facebook, privacy experts said, nets a vast range of real-time information --- friendships, photos, work histories, interests and consumer tastes, as well as mobile, location and facial-recognition data --- that advertisers view as more current and accurate than the broker information inferred from old receipts and government logs. What, they ask, would advertisers need to pay data brokers for?
但是一些评论家质疑这一举措会对一个网站产生什么影响,该网站将销售用户信息作为其最大的赚钱机构。隐私专家表示,Facebook可以提供广泛的实时信息 - 友情,照片,工作历史,兴趣和消费者口味,以及移动,位置和面部识别数据---广告商认为这些信息更新并且比从旧收据和政府日志推断的经纪人信息准确。他们问,广告商需要为数据经纪人付费吗?

"We don't know enough about Facebook's data trove to know whether their abandonment of Partner Categories helps users avoid privacy invasions," said Frank Pasquale, a University of Maryland professor who specializes in algorithms and privacy. "Even if we did have that knowledge, we have little reason to trust Facebook to actually follow through on it. It may well change course once media attention has gone elsewhere."
"我们对Facebook的数据库知之甚少,不知道他们放弃合作伙伴类别是否有助于用户避免侵犯隐私,"马里兰大学教授,专门研究算法和隐私的Frank Pasquale说。 "即使我们确实掌握了这些知识,我们也没有理由相信Facebook会真正遵循它。一旦媒体的注意力转移到其他地方,它可能会改变方向。"

Elizabeth Dwoskin contributed to this report.

中英文模式阅读
中文模式阅读
英文模式阅读

查看英文原文

查看更多文章

公众号:银河系1号
公众号:银河系1号

联系邮箱:public@space-explore.com
联系邮箱:public@space-explore.com

(未经同意,请勿转载)
(未经同意,请勿转载)