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SAN FRANCISCO (AP) --- Google wants to know where you go so badly that it records your movements even when you explicitly tell it not to.
旧金山(美联社)---谷歌想要知道你去哪里,即使你明确告诉它不要记录你的动作。

An Associated Press investigation found that many Google services on Android devices and iPhones store your location data even if you've used privacy settings that say they will prevent it from doing so.
美联社的一项调查发现,Android设备和iPhone上的许多Google服务都会存储您的位置数据,即使您使用的隐私设置表明他们会阻止它这样做。

Computer-science researchers at Princeton confirmed these findings at the AP's request.
普林斯顿大学的计算机科学研究人员在AP的要求下证实了这些发现。

For the most part, Google is upfront about asking permission to use your location information. An app like Google Maps will remind you to allow access to location if you use it for navigating. If you agree to let it record your location over time, Google Maps will display that history for you in a "timeline" that maps out your daily movements.
在大多数情况下,Google都会提前申请使用您的位置信息。 Google地图等应用会提醒您,如果您使用该应用进行导航,则可以访问该位置。如果您同意让它记录您的位置,Google地图会在"时间轴"中为您显示该历史记录,该时间轴会映射您的日常活动。

Storing your minute-by-minute travels carries privacy risks and has been used by police to determine the location of suspects --- such as a warrant that police in Raleigh, North Carolina,
存储每分钟的旅行会带来隐私风险,并且警方已经使用它来确定嫌犯的位置 - 例如北卡罗来纳州罗利警方的逮捕令,served on Google last year to find devices near a murder scene. So the company will let you "pause" a setting called Location History.
寻找谋杀现场附近的设备。因此,该公司将让您"暂停"一个名为"位置历史记录"的设置。

Google says that will prevent the company from remembering where you've been. Google's
谷歌表示,这将阻止公司记住你去过的地方。谷歌的support page on the subject states: "You can turn off Location History at any time. With Location History off, the places you go are no longer stored."
说明:"您可以随时关闭位置记录。关闭位置记录后,您不再存储的位置。"

That isn't true. Even with Location History paused, some Google apps automatically store time-stamped location data without asking.
事实并非如此。即使暂停了"地理位置记录",某些Google应用也会自动存储带时间戳的位置数据而不会询问。

For example, Google stores a snapshot of where you are when you merely open its Maps app. Automatic daily weather updates on Android phones pinpoint roughly where you are. And some searches that have nothing to do with location, like "chocolate chip cookies," or "kids science kits," pinpoint your precise latitude and longitude --- accurate to the square foot --- and save it to your Google account.
例如,Google会存储您仅打开Google地图应用时所处位置的快照。 Android手机上的每日自动天气更新大致可以确定您的位置。一些与位置无关的搜索,如"巧克力饼干"或"儿童科学套件",精确定位您的精确纬度和经度 - 精确到平方英尺---并将其保存到您的Google帐户。

The privacy issue affects some two billion users of devices that run Google's Android operating software and hundreds of millions of worldwide iPhone users who rely on Google for maps or search.
隐私问题影响了大约20亿用户运行谷歌的Android操作软件,以及数亿全球iPhone用户依赖谷歌进行地图或搜索。

Storing location data in violation of a user's preferences is wrong, said Jonathan Mayer, a Princeton computer scientist and former chief technologist for the Federal Communications Commission's enforcement bureau. A researcher from Mayer's lab confirmed the AP's findings on multiple Android devices; the AP conducted its own tests on several iPhones that found the same behavior.
普林斯顿计算机科学家,联邦通信委员会执法局前首席技术专家乔纳森梅耶说,违反用户偏好存储位置数据是错误的。 Mayer实验室的一位研究人员证实了AP在多个Android设备上的发现;美联社对几个发现相同行为的iPhone进行了自己的测试。

"If you're going to allow users to turn off something called 'Location History,' then all the places where you maintain location history should be turned off," Mayer said. "That seems like a pretty straightforward position to have."
"如果你打算允许用户关闭一个名为'位置历史'的东西,那么你应该关闭所有保存位置历史记录的地方,"Mayer说。 "这似乎是一个非常直接的立场。"

Google says it is being perfectly clear.
谷歌表示非常清楚。

"There are a number of different ways that Google may use location to improve people's experience, including: Location History, Web and App Activity, and through device-level Location Services," a Google spokesperson said in a statement to the AP. "We provide clear descriptions of these tools, and robust controls so people can turn them on or off, and delete their histories at any time."
谷歌发言人在向美联社发表的一份声明中说:"谷歌可以利用多种不同的方式来改善人们的体验,包括:位置历史,网络和应用活动以及设备级定位服务。" "我们提供了对这些工具和强大控制的清晰描述,以便人们可以随时打开或关闭它们,并随时删除它们的历史记录。"

To stop Google from saving these location markers, the company says, users can turn off another setting, one that does not specifically reference location information. Called "Web and App Activity" and enabled by default, that setting stores a variety of information from Google apps and websites to your Google account.
该公司表示,为了阻止谷歌保存这些位置标记,用户可以关闭另一个设置,一个不具体引用位置信息的设置。该设置称为"网络和应用活动",默认情况下已启用,该设置会将Google应用和网站中的各种信息存储到您的Google帐户中。

When paused, it will prevent activity on any device from being saved to your account. But leaving "Web & App Activity" on and turning "Location History" off only prevents Google from adding your movements to the "timeline," its visualization of your daily travels. It does not stop Google's collection of other location markers.
暂停时,它会阻止任何设备上的活动保存到您的帐户。但是,关闭"网络和应用程序活动"并关闭"位置历史记录"只会阻止Google将您的动作添加到"时间轴",即其日常旅行的可视化。它不会阻止Google收集其他位置标记。

You can delete these location markers by hand, but it's a painstaking process since you have to select them individually, unless you want to delete all of your stored activity.
您可以手动删除这些位置标记,但这是一个艰苦的过程,因为您必须单独选择它们,除非您要删除所有存储的活动。

You can see the stored location markers on a page in your Google account at myactivity.google.com, although they're typically scattered under several different headers, many of which are unrelated to location.
您可以在myactivity.google.com上的Google帐户的页面上查看存储的位置标记,但它们通常分散在多个不同的标题下,其中许多标题与位置无关。

To demonstrate how powerful these other markers can be, the AP created
为了证明这些其他标记有多强大,AP创建了a visual map of the movements of Princeton postdoctoral researcher Gunes Acar, who carried an Android phone with Location history off, and shared a record of his Google account.
普林斯顿博士后研究员Gunes Acar的运动,他带着一部关于位置记录的Android手机,并分享了他的谷歌账户记录。

The map includes Acar's train commute on two trips to New York and visits to The High Line park, Chelsea Market, Hell's Kitchen, Central Park and Harlem. To protect his privacy, The AP didn't plot the most telling and frequent marker --- his home address.
该地图包括Acar的火车通勤,两次前往纽约,参观高线公园,切尔西市场,地狱厨房,中央公园和哈莱姆。为了保护他的隐私,美联社没有绘制最有说服力和频繁的标记 - 他的家庭住址。

Huge tech companies are under increasing scrutiny over their data practices, following a series of privacy scandals at Facebook and new data-privacy rules recently adopted by the European Union. Last year, the business news site Quartz found that Google was
继Facebook的一系列隐私丑闻和欧盟最近采用的新数据隐私规则之后,巨大的科技公司正在对其数据实践进行越来越严格的审查。去年,商业新闻网站Quartz发现谷歌是tracking Android users by collecting the addresses of nearby cellphone towers even if all location services were off. Google changed the practice and insisted it never recorded the data anyway.
通过收集附近手机信号塔的地址,即使所有位置服务都已关闭。谷歌改变了这种做法并坚称它从未记录过数据。

Critics say Google's insistence on tracking its users' locations stems from its drive to boost advertising revenue.
批评人士表示,谷歌坚持追踪用户的位置源于其推动广告收入增长的动力。

"They build advertising information out of data," said Peter Lenz, the senior geospatial analyst at Dstillery, a rival advertising technology company. "More data for them presumably means more profit."
"他们利用数据建立广告信息,"竞争对手广告技术公司Dstillery的高级地理空间分析师Peter Lenz说。 "他们的更多数据可能意味着更多的利润。"

The AP learned of the issue from K. Shankari, a graduate researcher at UC Berkeley who studies the commuting patterns of volunteers in order to help urban planners. She noticed that her Android phone prompted her to rate a shopping trip to Kohl's, even though she had turned Location History off.
美联社从加州大学伯克利分校的研究员K. Shankari那里了解了这个问题,他研究志愿者的通勤模式,以帮助城市规划者。她注意到她的Android手机促使她评价Kohl's的购物之旅,尽管她已经关闭了位置记录。

"So how did Google Maps know where I was?" she asked in a
"那么谷歌地图怎么知道我在哪里?"她问道blog post .
.

The AP wasn't able to recreate Shankari's experience exactly. But its attempts to do so revealed Google's tracking. The findings disturbed her.
AP无法完全重现Shankari的体验。但它试图这样做揭示了谷歌的追踪。调查结果扰乱了她。

"I am not opposed to background location tracking in principle," she said. "It just really bothers me that it is not explicitly stated."
"我原则上不反对背景位置跟踪,"她说。 "只是没有明确说明,这真让我烦恼。"

Google offers a more accurate description of how Location History actually works in a place you'd only see if you turn it off --- a popup that appears when you "pause" Location History on your
Google提供了一个更准确的描述,说明位置历史记录实际上如何在您关闭时只能看到的位置 - 当您"暂停"位置历史记录时出现的弹出窗口Google account webpage . There the company notes that "some location data may be saved as part of your activity on other Google services, like Search and Maps."
。该公司指出,"某些位置数据可能会保存为您在其他Google服务上的活动的一部分,例如搜索和地图。"

Google offers additional information in a popup that appears if you re-activate the "Web & App Activity" setting --- an uncommon action for many users, since this setting is on by default. That popup states that, when active, the setting "saves the things you do on Google sites, apps, and services ... and associated information, like location."
如果您重新激活"Web&App Activity"设置,Google会在弹出窗口中提供其他信息 - 这是许多用户不常见的操作,因为此设置默认情况下处于启用状态。该弹出窗口表示,在激活时,该设置会"保存您在Google网站,应用和服务上执行的操作以及相关信息,例如位置信息。"

Warnings when you're about to turn Location History off via Android and iPhone device settings are more difficult to interpret. On Android, the popup explains that "places you go with your devices will stop being added to your Location History map." On the iPhone, it simply reads, "None of your Google apps will be able to store location data in Location History."
当您即将通过Android和iPhone设备设置关闭位置记录时的警告更难以解释。在Android上,该弹出窗口解释说"您使用设备的地点将停止添加到您的位置记录地图中。"在iPhone上,它只是说:"您的所有Google应用都无法在位置记录中存储位置数据。"

The iPhone text is technically true if potentially misleading. With Location History off, Google Maps and other apps store your whereabouts in a section of your account called "My Activity," not "Location History."
如果潜在的误导性,iPhone文本在技术上是正确的。关闭位置记录功能后,Google地图和其他应用会将您的行踪存储在帐户的"我的活动"部分,而不是"位置记录"。

Since 2014, Google has let advertisers track the effectiveness of online ads at
自2014年以来,Google已让广告客户跟踪在线广告的有效性driving foot traffic , a feature that Google has said relies on user location histories.
,Google所说的一项功能依赖于用户位置历史记录。

The company is pushing further into such location-aware tracking to drive ad revenue, which rose 20 percent last year to $95.4 billion. At a Google Marketing Live summit in July, Google executives
该公司正在进一步推动这种位置感知跟踪,以推动广告收入,去年增长20%,达到954亿美元。谷歌高管在7月举行的Google营销直播峰会上表示unveiled a new tool called "local campaigns" that dynamically uses ads to boost in-person store visits. It says it can measure how well a campaign drove foot traffic with data pulled from Google users' location histories.
称为"本地广告系列",可动态使用广告来促进亲自存储访问。它表示,它可以衡量一项广告系列在谷歌用户的位置历史记录中提取数据的情况下推动人流量的情况。

Google also says location records stored in My Activity are used to target ads. Ad buyers can target ads to specific locations --- say, a mile radius around a particular landmark --- and typically have to pay more to reach this narrower audience.
谷歌还表示,存储在"我的活动"中的位置记录用于定位广告。广告买家可以将广告定位到特定位置 - 例如,围绕特定地标的半径半径 - 并且通常需要支付更多费用才能覆盖这些较窄的受众群体。

While disabling "Web & App Activity" will stop Google from storing location markers, it also prevents Google from storing information generated by searches and other activity. That can limit the effectiveness of the Google Assistant, the company's digital concierge.
虽然禁用"网络和应用活动"会阻止Google存储位置标记,但它也会阻止Google存储搜索和其他活动生成的信息。这可能会限制公司数字门房的Google智能助理的有效性。

Sean O'Brien, a Yale Privacy Lab researcher with whom the AP shared its findings, said it is "disingenuous" for Google to continuously record these locations even when users disable Location History. "To me, it's something people should know," he said.
美联社与其分享调查结果的耶鲁大学隐私实验室研究员肖恩·奥布莱恩表示,即使用户禁用位置历史记录,谷歌仍然"不诚实"地记录这些位置。 "对我来说,这是人们应该知道的事情,"他说。


AP Interactive: https://interactives.ap.org/google-location-tracking/
AP Interactive:https://interactives.ap.org/google-location-tracking/

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