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This computational research lab is reinventing computer programming

Sep 18, 2019 · 29 min read
2019年9月18日·29分钟阅读

Walking into Dynamicland, a computational research lab and communal computer in Oakland, the first thing I notice is the array of projects spread out across several work tables and the kitchen countertop. 3D printed math sculptures, stuffed animals, kids toys disassembled for parts, and a MIDI keyboard connected to a Raspberry Pi. There's enough art supplies to rival any Kindergarten classroom: markers and crayons, glue sticks, silly putty, felt tokens, pipe cleaners. Giant posters line the walls, with titles like "Annotation of the Celera Human Genome Assembly" and "Outline of the Discussion Leading to Maxwell's Equations." Bret Victor, the engineer-designer who runs the lab, loves these information-rich posters because they break us out of the tyranny of our glassy rectangular screens.
走进位于奥克兰的计算研究实验室和公共计算机Dynamicland,我注意到的第一件事是一系列项目分布在几个工作台和厨房台面上。 3D打印的数学雕塑,填充动物,儿童玩具拆解零件,以及连接到Raspberry Pi的MIDI键盘。有足够的艺术用品可以与任何幼儿园教室相媲美:标记和蜡笔,胶棒,腻子,毛毡标记,管道清洁剂。巨型海报排列在墙上,标题如"Celera人类基因组大纲的注释"和"麦克斯韦方程式的讨论大纲"。经营这个实验室的工程师兼设计师Bret Victor喜欢这些信息丰富的海报,因为他们让我们摆脱了玻璃矩形屏幕的暴政。

In one corner of the building, there's a
在建筑的一角,有一个library. The books are centered around STEM but reach well into the arts and humanities. A copy of
。这些书以STEM为中心,但很好地融入了艺术和人文学科。副本 A History of Engineering & Science in the Bell System sits on the coffee table, and on one wall there is a poster labeled "Every Representation of Everything (in progress)," showcasing examples of different musical notation systems, sign languages, mathematical representations, chemistry notations.
坐在咖啡桌上,在一面墙上有一张标有"Everythingation of Everything(进行中)"的海报,展示了不同乐谱系统,手语,数学表示,化学符号的例子。

Dynamicland is a non-profit that resides somewhere between an academic research lab and a Silicon Valley startup, between physical and digital, and between computing's distant past and its future. The researchers here are inventing a new computational medium.
Dynamicland是一个非盈利组织,位于学术研究实验室和硅谷创业公司之间,物理和数字之间,以及计算的遥远过去和未来之间。这里的研究人员正在发明一种新的计算媒介。

What is a computational medium --- and how is one invented?
什么是计算媒介---如何发明?

Before we get into that, let's look at an ancient medium: The map. Map reading is a complex and uniquely human skill, not at all obvious to a young child. You float out of your body and into the sky, leaving behind the point of view you've been accustomed to all your life. Your imagination turns squiggly blue lines and green shading into creeks, mountains, and forests seen from above. Bringing it all together in your mind's eye, you can picture the surroundings.
在我们进入之前,让我们看看一个古老的媒介:地图。地图阅读是一项复杂而独特的人类技能,对幼儿来说并不是很明显。你浮出你的身体,向天空漂浮,留下你已经习惯了一生的观点。你的想象力将波浪形的蓝色线条和绿色阴影变成了从上面看到的小溪,山脉和森林。在你的大脑中将它们融合在一起,你可以想象周围的环境。

Maps are so beautifully matched to our mental faculties. We train our minds around them. They shrink vast topographies to human scale so we can dream and reason about them in ways that were previously impossible --- our street, our planet, distant moons.
地图与我们的智力相得益彰。我们训练他们的思想。它们将巨大的地形缩小到人类规模,因此我们可以用以前不可能的方式来梦想和推理它们 - 我们的街道,我们的星球,遥远的卫星。

It feels so natural, yet maps had to be invented, and the invention of the map transformed civilization. It greatly expanded our cognitive reach, giving us the ability to depict rich geographic information.
感觉很自然,但地图必须被发明,地图的发明改变了文明。它极大地扩展了我们的认知范围,使我们能够描绘丰富的地理信息。

And you don't have to be a professional cartographer to draw a map. A kid with a crayon and a napkin can map their neighborhood, complete with secret hideouts, friends' houses, parks, and skate spots. That's the beauty of physical media, as opposed to digital media: You can create it with anything you can find. Draw on a napkin. Draw in the sand with a stick. The medium is open to a wide range of improvisation.
而且您不必是专业的制图师来绘制地图。一个带蜡笔和餐巾的孩子可以映射他们的邻居,包括秘密藏身处,朋友家,公园和滑冰场。与数字媒体相比,这是物理媒体的美妙之处:您可以使用您能找到的任何东西创建它。画在餐巾纸上。用棍子画在沙子里。媒体可以进行广泛的即兴创作。

Digital media, however, tend to be more rigid. Commercial apps force us into ways of working with media that are tightly prescribed by a handful of people who design them. For example, Instagram has exactly three brush tools for drawing on photos, and five typefaces. Creative flexibility beyond that is possible but requires a lot more effort.
然而,数字媒体往往更加僵化。商业应用程序迫使我们采用与少数设计它们的人严格规定的媒体合作的方式。例如,Instagram只有三种用于绘制照片的画笔工具和五种字体。除此之外的创造性灵活性是可能的,但需要更多的努力。

Every medium has limits. What is at first liberating eventually becomes a prison that constrains our expression and our range of thought. Because every medium has limits, there's always an opportunity to invent new media that will expand our ability to understand the world around us, and to address major problems of civilization.
每种媒介都有限制。最初解放的东西最终会成为一个限制我们表达和思想范围的监狱。因为每种媒介都有限制,所以总有机会发明新媒体,这将扩展我们理解周围世界的能力,并解决文明的重大问题。

A lot of what we use today is extended from our analog past: email, digital books, and digital photos are more or less direct carryovers from physical letters, books, and photos. And this tendency has bled into hardware products: We've extended $0.05 pencils and $0.005 paper by creating $200 digital pencils and $1,000 digital tablets. But by carrying forward some of the elegance of pencil and paper into the digital realm, we're also missing entirely new approaches.
我们今天使用的很多东西都是从我们的模拟过去延伸出来的:电子邮件,数字图书和数码照片或多或少都是来自实体字母,书籍和照片的直接遗留物。这种趋势已渗透到硬件产品中:我们通过创造200美元的数字铅笔和1,000美元的数字平板电脑,扩展了0.05美元的铅笔和0.005美元的纸张。但是,通过将一些优雅的铅笔和纸张带入数字领域,我们也缺少全新的方法。

That's what Dynamicland has been looking for: New approaches. New media that can only be made using computers.
这就是Dynamicland一直在寻找的东西:新方法。只能使用计算机制作的新媒体。


The invention of a new medium is an iterative chicken-and-egg dilemma; a long-term push and pull between the medium and the work created with it. For the invention of the Smalltalk programming system in the 1970s at Xerox's Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), each 2--4 year research cycle followed the same steps:
新媒体的发明是一种迭代的鸡与蛋的困境;媒介与用它创造的作品之间的长期推动和拉动。对于20世纪70年代在施乐帕洛阿尔托研究中心(PARC)发明的Smalltalk编程系统,每2 - 4年的研究周期遵循相同的步骤:

  1. Build applications in the language
  2. Based on that experience, redesign the language
  3. Build a new system based on the redesign.

Over the course of a decade, researchers went through five of these cycles before issuing the first public release of Smalltalk. It became a seminal programming language, and the most popular modern languages like Python and JavaScript incorporate major ideas --- like object-oriented programming and reflection --- that began with Smalltalk. Smalltalk's graphical user interface became the basis for the look and feel of the Macintosh.
在十年的时间里,研究人员在发布Smalltalk的第一个公开发布之前经历了其中五个周期。它成为了一种开创性的编程语言,最流行的现代语言如Python和JavaScript结合了主要的思想 - 比如面向对象的编程和反思 - 从Smalltalk开始。 Smalltalk的图形用户界面成为Macintosh外观的基础。Byte Magazine Smalltalk issue, August 1981

Byte Magazine Smalltalk issue, August 1981
杂志Smalltalk问题,1981年8月Internet Archive

The Smalltalk research team was led by computing pioneer Alan Kay. A man of big visions and the technical expertise to back them up, Kay is a natural teacher, charming and full of great stories and anecdotes about innovation. His lifelong work is to create a dynamic medium --- and dynamic literacy --- for children. In the late 1960s, Kay crafted an early prototype of a laptop/tablet computer out of cardboard, decades before it was feasible to produce, calling it "A Personal Computer For Children Of All Ages."
Smalltalk研究团队由计算先驱Alan Kay领导。 Kay是一位有着远见卓识和技术专长的人,他是一位天生的老师,充满了创造性的精彩故事和轶事。他的终身工作是为孩子们创造一种充满活力的媒介 - 和动态的文化。在20世纪60年代后期,凯在纸板上制作了早期的笔记本电脑/平板电脑原型,几十年才开始生产,称其为"适合所有年龄段儿童的个人电脑"。

Over the decades, Kay has migrated between advanced research departments in large companies like Apple and HP, more recently via his own LA-based institute, Viewpoints Research. In his talks, he argues that the conditions for critical long-term research that can really benefit humanity rarely happen inside of corporations because of the market's obsession with quarter-by-quarter financials. To make real progress, research needs to be protected from that.
几十年来,Kay已经在Apple和HP等大公司的高级研究部门之间迁移,最近通过他自己位于洛杉矶的研究所Viewpoints Research进行迁移。在他的谈话中,他认为,由于市场对逐季度金融的痴迷,在公司内部很少发生能够真正造福人类的关键长期研究的条件。为了取得实际进展,需要保护研究不受此影响。

In 2013, Kay began to partner with Vishal Sikka, the affable tech executive and Mr. Bean doppelgänger, to create a new lab to reinvent computing in the spirit of Xerox PARC. Sikka was committed to Kay's vision, and as the CTO of SAP he had the resources to fund it. The lab was called The Communication Design Group (CDG). Kay hired three principal investigators:
2013年,Kay开始与友好的技术主管Vishal Sikka和Beandubpelgänger先生合作,创建一个以Xerox PARC精神重塑计算的新实验室。 Sikka致力于Kay的愿景,作为SAP的首席技术官,他有资源为其提供资金。该实验室被称为通信设计组(CDG)。凯聘请了三名主要调查员:Dan Ingalls,
Vi Hart, and
,和Bret Victor, offering them space and time in San Francisco.
,在旧金山为他们提供空间和时间。

For engineer-designer Bret Victor, whose work at Apple influenced the iPad and Apple Watch, the golden era of long-term research at Xerox PARC, Bell Labs, and other institutions in the 1960s and 70s had always seemed locked in the past. It was folklore to be shared among nerds over beer. But when Kay approached Victor and the other researchers to form CDG, it was clear that there was a torch to be carried forward, with each researcher bringing their own perspective into the mix.
对于工程师兼设计师Bret Victor来说,他在Apple的工作影响了iPad和Apple Watch,在Xerox PARC,贝尔实验室和其他机构在20世纪60年代和70年代进行的长期研究的黄金时代似乎总是被锁定在过去。在啤酒的书呆子之间分享是民间传说。但当凯接近维克多和其他研究人员组建CDG时,很明显有一个火炬可以继续推进,每个研究人员都将自己的观点融入到混合体中。

Inspired by Kay's vision, Victor soon discovered that inventing new dynamic media was the work he was born to do. Over the years, Victor had come to the conclusion that people desperately need to be relieved of many of the basic assumptions about what programming is and who gets to have the privilege of doing it; assumptions that settled into the sedimentary layer of technology 40 years ago and have barely moved since.
受Kay的愿景启发,Victor很快发现创造新的动态媒体是他天生就要做的工作。多年来,Victor得出的结论是,人们迫切需要解除许多关于编程是什么以及谁有权这样做的基本假设; 40年前沉淀到技术沉积层中的假设,此后几乎没有变化。


If we want a future where everyone can program as easily as drawing a map on a napkin, where the full power of computing is available to more than just professional programmers, we may need to reimagine programming itself.
如果我们想要一个每个人都可以像在餐巾纸上绘制地图一样轻松编程的未来,那里的计算能力不仅仅是专业程序员,我们可能需要重新构想编程本身。

Traditionally, programming languages exist within a holy trinity: The language, the tools, and the operating system. The trinity allows programmers to become masters of a general-purpose toolset that works across many languages. As C++ creator Bjarne Stroustrup writes in
传统上,编程语言存在于三位一体中:语言,工具和操作系统。三位一体允许程序员成为适用于多种语言的通用工具集的主人。正如C ++创建者Bjarne Stroustrup所写 The Design and Evolution of C++ , "The need for a programming language to be just a cog in a much larger machine is of utmost importance to most industrial users." He attributes C++'s broad appeal to its ability to fit into the trinity. It's very helpful to professional programmers when languages can play well together. The desire for interoperable languages and common tools is what holds the trinity in place, and any language that tries to break out has very little chance of becoming very popular.
"对于大多数工业用户来说,编程语言只需要在更大的机器中成为一个齿轮,这一点至关重要。"他将C ++的广泛吸引力归功于其融入三位一体的能力。当语言可以很好地协同工作时,它对专业程序员非常有帮助。对可互操作语言和常用工具的渴望是三位一体的原因,任何试图突破的语言都很少有机会变得非常受欢迎。

As a result, most professional programmers today spend their days editing text files inside an 80-column-wide command line interface first designed in the mid-1960s. And most people don't even question it. But there is a subculture of programmers --- with Victor as its natural center --- who believe that programming is in a Dark Age because of this near-universal commitment to the trinity.
因此,如今大多数专业程序员都花费大量时间在最初设计于20世纪60年代中期的80列范围的命令行界面中编辑文本文件。大多数人甚至不会质疑它。但是有一个程序员的亚文化 - 以维克多作为其自然中心 - 他们认为编程处于黑暗时代,因为这种对三位一体的近乎普遍的承诺。

We need programming systems that break out of the trinity, that feel alive and fluid and that move closer to the domains most people care about. Spreadsheets hint at an alternative: They provide an environment that gives immediate feedback, where the code and the data live together in a graphical interface, with a language that is well-suited to common tabular data problems. Scratch, a popular programming system for children developed at MIT, is designed for play and creativity.
我们需要打破三位一体的编程系统,感觉活泼和流畅,并且更接近大多数人关心的领域。电子表格暗示了另一种选择:它们提供了一个环境,可以提供即时反馈,代码和数据在图形界面中共存,其语言非常适合常见的表格数据问题。 Scratch是麻省理工学院开发的一种流行的儿童编程系统,专为游戏和创造而设计。In Scratch, programs come together like jigsaw puzzles.

In Scratch, programs come together like jigsaw puzzles.
在Scratch中,程序像拼图一样汇集在一起。Wikimedia

Learning programming is about learning problem solving while exploring the special kind of creativity that computers and software afford. Programming is where information becomes a living thing capable of movement, flowing through systems and adapting itself to various processes and models. It allows information to dance. And it could be so much more beautiful, playful, humane, and accessible than what the holy trinity affords.
学习编程是关于学习问题解决,同时探索计算机和软件所提供的特殊创造力。编程是指信息成为一种能够运动,流经系统并适应各种流程和模型的生物。它允许信息跳舞。它可能比圣三位一体提供的更美丽,更有趣,更人性化,更容易接近。


Working with Sikka and his team at SAP, CDG spent all of 2013 putting an insulating layer between themselves and SAP so that the research could happen. Many of the decisions they made required exceptions and workarounds to SAP policies: They wanted their own office space, they wanted the researchers to retain IP rights, and so on. In a company of SAP's size, even with the blessing of the CTO, cutting through the red tape was exhausting for Victor, who took on a lot of the work. And simultaneously, he had to figure out how to create a research lab, find and design a space, build a team, and plan the research itself.
与SAP的Sikka及其团队合作,CDG在2013年全年在SAP和SAP之间建立了一个绝缘层,以便进行研究。他们做出的许多决策都需要SAP政策的例外和解决方案:他们想要自己的办公空间,他们希望研究人员保留知识产权,等等。在SAP规模的公司中,即使有了CTO的祝福,切断繁文缛节也让Victor感到疲惫不堪,后者承担了大量的工作。同时,他必须弄清楚如何创建一个研究实验室,寻找和设计一个空间,建立一个团队,并规划研究本身。

The work paid off, and 2014 was a very fruitful year. Victor hired four researchers to work with him, and he gave them autonomy to work on their own individual projects within a broad agenda. Early projects included
这项工作得到了回报,2014年是一个非常富有成果的一年。维克多聘请了四名研究人员与他合作,并授予他们自主权,以便在广泛的议程中处理他们自己的个人项目。早期项目包括ShaderShop by
通过Toby Schachman, which allows people to do low-level graphics programming visually rather than write code, and an
,允许人们在视觉上进行低级图形编程,而不是编写代码,以及experiment in active video by
通过Glen Chiacchieri, using the PBS civil rights documentary "Eyes on the Prize."
,使用PBS民权纪录片"关注奖"。

The researchers believed they had at least 5--7 years of funding. With plenty of money in the bank, the research could be very exploratory and playful. There was no pressure to make anything marketable. The researchers could drop the performance of fast-paced productivity that pervades startup culture, and work at their own natural tempo. They could follow intuitive hunches that were unlikely to lead to anything. They could spend long, quiet days reading and doing uninterrupted deep work in a direction of their choosing. And, when inspiration struck, they could work all night --- or weeks on end --- on a new prototype.
研究人员认为他们至少有5 - 7年的资金。由于银行有足够的资金,研究可能非常具有探索性和趣味性。任何可以销售的产品都没有压力。研究人员可以放弃贯穿始创文化的快节奏生产力,并按照自己的自然节奏工作。他们可以遵循不太可能带来任何结果的直觉预感。他们可以在漫长而平静的日子里阅读,并在他们选择的方向上不间断地深入工作。并且,当灵感来袭时,他们可以在一个新的原型上整夜工作 - 或者数周 - 工作。

All that space and openness triggered at least one existential crisis. For Chiacchieri, a young software engineer recruited from MIT's Media Lab, working for Victor seemed like a dream job at first. But knowing that he could work on absolutely anything at all led him to deeply question his values. It created a lot of anxiety and eventually depression, and in his second year at the lab he spent several despairing months spinning around in circles. "With no one telling me what to work on, I had to decide for myself what was meaningful in this life. Because of how seriously I took my work, this process was very difficult for me," he wrote in a recent essay. Ultimately, after a series of psychedelic journeys with LSD, and existential conversations with his colleagues, Chiacchieri chose to
所有这些空间和开放都引发了至少一次存在主义危机。对于从麻省理工学院媒体实验室招聘的年轻软件工程师Chiacchieri来说,为Victor工作起初似乎是一个梦想的工作。但是知道他可以完全依赖任何事情,这使他对他的价值观产生了深刻的质疑。它造成了很多焦虑,并最终导致抑郁,在实验室的第二年,他花了几个绝望的月份在圈子里旋转。 "没有人告诉我该做些什么,我必须自己决定今生有什么意义。由于我对我的工作有多认真,这个过程对我来说非常困难,"他在最近的一篇文章中写道。最终,经过LSD的一系列迷幻之旅,以及与同事的存在性对话,Chiacchieri选择了quit tech and became a psychotherapist.
并成为一名心理治疗师。

The exploratory openness of the lab was hampered in the summer of 2014, just a few months after CDG's opening party, when Sikka left SAP abruptly. Having lost their internal champion at SAP, CDG's longer-term future was looking unclear.
实验室的探索性开放在2014年夏天受到阻碍,就在CDG开幕派对后几个月,当时Sikka突然离开了SAP。失去了他们在SAP的内部冠军,CDG的长期未来看起来不太清楚。

Kay largely protected the researchers from this disruption. At the time, Victor's team was creating a prototype system called
凯在很大程度上保护研究人员免受这种破坏。当时,Victor的团队正在创建一个名为的原型系统 Hypercard in the World , which allowed people to attach hyperlinks to physical objects.
,允许人们将超链接附加到物理对象。

Victor, and researcher
维克多和研究员Robert Ochshorn, turned all of the past work of the lab into a
,把实验室过去的所有工作都变成了 Hypercard in the World research gallery. Point to a project or paper listed on a big "index poster" using a laser pointer, and an adjacent display would show more information about the project. Another project by
研究画廊。指向使用激光指示器在大型"索引海报"上列出的项目或纸张,相邻的显示器将显示有关该项目的更多信息。另一个项目May-Li Khoe, called
,叫 Serengeti , used animal cut-outs to make a dynamic diorama about desert animals. Visitors could point to an animal with the laser pointer to learn more about it.
,使用动物切口制作有关沙漠动物的动态立体模型。参观者可以用激光笔指向动物,以了解更多信息。

In late summer 2014, CDG hosted a Game Jam that was a real shining moment of fast-paced collaboration and prolificacy. Friends of the lab came over and made a dozen
2014年夏末,CDG举办了一场Game Jam,这是一个快节奏的合作和多产的真正闪亮时刻。实验室的朋友过来了,打了十几个 Hypercard in the World projects. Chiacchieri made a party game called
项目。 Chiacchieri做了一个名为的派对游戏Laser Socks using laser pointers, projectors pointed at the floor, and people jumping around in socks.
使用激光指示器,投影仪指向地板,人们在袜子里跳来跳去。

Over the next year, more exploratory prototypes were built. "I would do these weird art projects," Schachman said. He hosted a
在接下来的一年里,建造了更多探索性原型。 "我会做这些奇怪的艺术项目,"Schachman说。他主持了一个Mirror Hacking Workshop where he invited people to create sculptures using laser-cut mirrors. At the time it seemed unrelated to the research, but upon reflection he had a big insight about collaboration and the power of eye contact, and working with physical materials, and allowing people to see what others are doing. And he began to ask, why can't computing be more like this?
他邀请人们用激光切割镜子制作雕塑。当时它似乎与研究无关,但经过反思,他对协作和眼神接触的力量,使用物理材料,以及让人们看到别人正在做的事情有很大的洞察力。他开始问,为什么计算不能更像这样?

Meanwhile, the relationship with the corporate overlords at SAP gradually broke down, and by early 2016 it was clear that CDG needed a new home. Around the same time, Victor made it clear to his group that they needed to come together and build a single system, rather than work primarily on individual research projects. Several researchers didn't want to go along for the ride, and left.
与此同时,与SAP公司霸主的关系逐渐破裂,到2016年初,CDG显然需要一个新家。大约在同一时间,Victor向他的小组明确表示他们需要聚集在一起建立一个单一的系统,而不是主要在个别研究项目上工作。几位研究人员不想继续前行,然后离开了。

By May 2016, Kay was able to charm Y Combinator's president and A-type startup whisperer Sam Altman. They created Human Advancement Research Community (HARC) inside of YC Research and absorbed the CDG researchers there. Altman generously agreed to fund HARC out of pocket while they waited for other promised funding to come through.
到2016年5月,Kay能够吸引Y Combinator的总裁和A型创业低语者Sam Altman。他们在YC Research内部创建了人类进步研究社区(HARC),并吸收了那里的CDG研究人员。奥特曼慷慨地同意在等待其他承诺资金到来时为HARC提供资金。

That arrangement lasted a little over a year. In July 2017, just a few months after HARC moved into a beautifully renovated building in old Oakland, Altman abruptly defunded the lab.
这种安排持续了一年多一点。 2017年7月,就在HARC搬进旧奥克兰一座经过精心翻修的建筑物的几个月后,奥特曼突然退出实验室。

It's unclear why he pulled the plug. In his Y Combinator
目前还不清楚他为什么拔掉插头。在他的Y Combinator中annual letter in February 2017, he said that the work coming out of Victor's lab "remain one of the new technologies I think most about." But a person close to Altman told me that by July his excitement had shifted from HARC to OpenAI, another YC Research project where he is now CEO. Amidst the ashes, a burned-out Kay left for London, and the research groups disbanded.
2017年2月,他说维克多实验室的工作"仍然是我认为最重要的新技术之一。"但是一位接近奥特曼的人告诉我,到7月他的兴奋已从HARC转移到另一个YC研究项目OpenAI,他现在担任首席执行官。在灰烬中,一个被烧毁的凯离开了伦敦,研究小组解散了。

Victor's group, however, had one thing keeping them going: Just two weeks before they learned about HARC's demise, the group's new programming system --- Realtalk --- had taken its first baby steps. Operating at about one frame per second it was more of a crawl, but it was a very exciting crawl.
然而,维克多的团队有一件事让他们继续前进:在他们了解到HARC的消亡前两周,该集团的新编程系统--- Realtalk已经迈出了第一步。它以大约每秒一帧的速度运行,这更像是一次爬行,但这是一次非常激动人心的爬行。

The ideas behind Realtalk incorporated all of the lessons learned from past projects like Hypercard in the World. The researchers --- 
Realtalk背后的想法结合了过去项目中的所有经验教训,如Hypercard in the World。研究人员---Josh Horowitz,
Luke Iannini, Toby Schachman,
,Toby Schachman,Paula Te, and Bret Victor, along with producer
和Bret Victor以及制片人Virginia McArthur --- had spent a year designing the new system and two months bringing it to life.
---花了一年时间设计新系统,两个月就把它变为现实。

Inspired by the potential of their new system, Victor's research group opted to go out on their own, take over HARC's Oakland space, and start fundraising for themselves.
受到新系统潜力的启发,Victor的研究小组选择自行出发,接管HARC的奥克兰空间,并开始为自己筹款。

In a talk he gave last year at Harvard, Victor laid out three major design principles from the research that were incorporated into Realtalk:
在他去年在哈佛大学发表的一次演讲中,Victor从研究中提出了三个主要的设计原则,这些原则被纳入了Realtalk:

  • The medium should be communal and accessible. People should learn and collaborate through awareness, with no assumption of a single, isolated user sitting at a laptop with a keyboard and mouse.
  • The medium should allow people to think with their bodies, because we are more than fingers and hands.
  • The medium should expand people's agency and liberate their creativity; rather than being an app with a limited set of features defined by a corporation and imposed on people.

Instead of simulating things like paper and pencils inside a computer, Realtalk grants computational value to everyday objects in the world. The building is the computer. Space is a first-class entity --- a building block of computation. Digital projectors, cameras, and computers are inconspicuously attached to the ceiling rafters, creating space on tables and walls for projects and collaboration. Most of the software is printed on paper and runs on paper. But the deeper idea is that when the system recognizes any physical object, it becomes a computational object.
Realtalk不是在计算机内模拟纸张和铅笔之类的东西,而是为世界上的日常物品赋予计算价值。这栋楼是电脑。空间是一流的实体---计算的基石。数字投影仪,照相机和计算机不显眼地附着在天花板椽子上,为桌面和墙壁创造了空间,用于项目和协作。大多数软件都是在纸上打印并在纸上运行。但更深层的想法是,当系统识别出任何物理对象时,它就变成了一个计算对象。

When the system recognizes a physical object,
当系统识别出物理对象时
it becomes a computational object.
它成为一个计算对象。


Several of the researchers had never created such a complete, low-level system before. It narrowed their focus and brought a sense of alignment to the team just in time to start fundraising.
一些研究人员之前从未创建过如此完整的低级系统。它缩小了他们的注意力,并及时为团队带来了一致感,以便开始筹款。

With only a few months of cash in the bank, trade-offs were made. Instead of perfect conceptual purity and deep flexibility, the team focused on polishing up what they had for funders.
由于银行只有几个月的现金,因此进行了权衡。该团队没有完美的概念纯度和深度的灵活性,而是专注于为资助者提供他们所拥有的东西。

Today, Realtalk projects have taken over most of the building --- each one a little constellation of paper and light. The tables and walls are lit up with radiant multicolored comets, rain and frogs and octopi, puzzles and graphs, clocks and maps. A music sequencer by Te called
今天,Realtalk项目占据了大部分建筑 - 每个建筑都有一个纸和光的星座。桌子和墙壁上点缀着璀璨的彩色彗星,雨水和青蛙以及章鱼,谜题和图表,时钟和地图。 Te的音乐音序器叫 Beats of the World lets you design rhythmic loops with felt tokens.
让你用毛毡标记设计有节奏的循环。GeoKit by
通过Omar Rizwan is a giant interactive wall map.
是一个巨大的互动墙地图。

I sit at a table and point a keyboard at a page labeled "Code editor." An editor appears.
我坐在一张桌子旁,将键盘指向一个标有"代码编辑器"的页面。编辑出现了。

Hit Control-P, and a laser printer spits out a page with your program written on it.
点击Control-P,激光打印机会在你的程序上写一个页面。

Here's what the page for "Hello, World" looks like:
以下是"Hello,World"的页面:

Place this page onto any surface and you will see its output projected on top:
将此页面放在任何表面上,您将看到其输出投影在顶部:
| | It's a little silly to write a classic Hello World program in Realtalk, when you can simply write "Hello, World!" on a piece of paper with a marker, if those are the words you want to see.
| |在Realtalk中编写经典的Hello World程序有点傻,当你可以简单地写"你好,世界!"在一张带有标记的纸上,如果这些是您想要看到的单词。

As long as it is on the table, it's running. Flip it over and it will stop.
只要它在桌子上,它就会运行。翻转它会停止。

Paper can be cut, glittered, stamped, torn, taped, stapled and scrawled upon. It can be glued to spinners, made into miniature books, or folded into origami and flicked across the table. It's a great format for prototyping. Kids love it. Everyone loves it. It immediately invites new ideas.
纸张可以切割,闪烁,盖章,撕裂,录音,装订和潦草。它可以粘在旋转器上,制成微型书,或者折叠成折纸,然后在桌子上翻动。这是原型设计的一种很好的格式。孩子们喜欢它。每个人都喜欢它。它立即邀请新的想法。

Realtalk projects come to life by writing one or more programs on pages, and physically arranging them on a table. Pages can easily communicate with each other, making composition and interactivity easy.
通过在页面上编写一个或多个程序并将它们物理地安排在桌面上,Realtalk项目变为现实。页面可以轻松地相互通信,使组合和交互变得容易。

Aside from paper, there are also dots. The computer vision algorithm recognizes M&Ms, little felt tokens, even painted fingernails as dots. Want a slider control? Draw a straight line with a marker, place a dot onto the page, and slide it with your finger. Or glue a dot onto the end of a popsicle stick.
除了纸张,还有点。计算机视觉算法识别M&Ms,很少感觉到令牌,甚至将指甲涂成点状。想要一个滑块控件?用标记画一条直线,在页面上放一个点,然后用手指滑动。或者在冰棒棍的末端粘上一个点。

The entire source code for Realtalk is printed and posted across several rolling whiteboards. Developer tools for printing and debugging hang from a pegboard that would look at home in a woodshop. Projects are stuffed into binders and plastic cases labelled Dinner Party Games, Rainbow Canvas, Shape Cycle, and Radial Animation. People learn by example, reading the pages that are posted around the space, and flipping through little ring-bound tutorial zines that can be run on any surface.
Realtalk的完整源代码在几个滚动白板上打印和发布。用于打印和调试的开发人员工具挂在一个可以在木工店看家的挂板上。项目被塞入粘合剂和塑料盒中,标记为晚宴派对,彩虹帆布,形状周期和径向动画。人们通过示例学习,阅读在空间周围张贴的页面,并翻阅可在任何表面上运行的小环形教程。The source code for Realtalk is printed on rolling whiteboards at Dynamicland

The source code for Realtalk is printed on rolling whiteboards at Dynamicland
Realtalk的源代码印在Dynamicland的滚动白板上

When you place a page on the table, the code on it is continually running. When you make changes, the feedback is immediate. There's a feeling of dancing with code that's hard to describe. It's easy to find the satisfaction of quick progress. It maximizes the flow of ideas. I'm constantly surprised by the new ideas that emerge from bugs and quirks. I let go of "How should it work?" as I feel my way toward what I want, allowing for happy accidents along the way.
在页面上放置页面时,其上的代码将继续运行。进行更改时,反馈会立即生效。有一种难以描述的代码跳舞的感觉。很容易找到快速进步的满意度。它最大化了思想的流动。我总是对从错误和怪癖中出现的新想法感到惊讶。我放开了"它应该如何运作?"当我感觉自己走向我想要的方向时,允许一路上发生的快乐事故。

Realtalk programs are constantly remixed and passed around. They become physical memes and are reprinted and copied and modified. I had this happen with a simple Magic 8 Ball page attached to a spinner. I wrote it without much thought, left it out on a table, and when I came back a couple weeks later I found several remixes of it around the space. Pages with emotional power or universal utility seem to proliferate.
Realtalk程序经常被重新混合并传递。它们变成了物理模因,并被重新打印,复制和修改。我在旋转器附带一个简单的Magic 8 Ball页面时发生了这种情况。我没有多想就把它写下来,把它放在桌子上,几周后我回来的时候,我发现它周围有几个混音。具有情感力量或普遍效用的页面似乎激增。

The "communal and accessible" principle is where the lab still has a lot of work to do. It's a hard problem. Most of the major projects on display were made by individual researchers, not a group. Several of the researchers are programmers who grew up coding by themselves, and it's a tough habit to break. Solo flow is very seductive.
"公共和可访问"原则是实验室仍有许多工作要做的地方。这是一个难题。展出的大多数主要项目都是由个别研究人员制作的,而不是一组人。一些研究人员是自己编写代码的程序员,这是一个很难打破的习惯。 Solo流非常诱人。

It makes sense that they're selective about who they invite to the lab and when (and how) to share the research itself. They are sensitive to their language and working style being polluted by Silicon Valleyspeak and brogrammer culture. And there's a tension between containing the research so it can develop in the safety of the lab environment, and creating a community space so that the medium can be designed in conversation with many kinds of people. "We have to open the research to letting more people come in and help us shape it, so that it's not just benefitting the same kind of people who have had the privilege to become programmers," Te said. "As someone whose perspective as a non-white non-male has always been underrepresented, my goal is to empower those who aren't represented by dominant culture be a part of inventing new mediums." | | We have before us the opportunity to design the future, not simply to predict it. The largely white, male, technocratic structure that has profited so richly in the past stands now to move ahead of the rest of society by immesurable degrees. ... There is, nevertheless, the opportunity to demystify the exotic, simplify the arcane, and render the computer simple, accessible, and democratic.
他们选择参加实验室的人以及何时(以及如何)分享研究本身是有道理的。他们对自己的语言和工作方式很敏感,受到硅谷和布莱克文化的污染。包含研究之间存在紧张关系,因此它可以在实验室环境的安全性中发展,并创建一个社区空间,以便可以在与多种人的对话中设计媒体。 "我们必须开展这项研究,让更多的人进来帮助我们塑造它,这样才不会让那些有幸成为程序员的同类人受益,"Te说。 "作为非白人非男性的观点一直不足的人,我的目标是赋予那些没有主流文化代表的人成为发明新媒体的一部分。" | |我们面前有机会设计未来,而不仅仅是预测它。过去盈利如此丰富的白人,男性,技术官僚结构现在已经超越了社会其他部分。 ......然而,有机会揭开异国情调的神秘面纱,简化奥术,并使计算机变得简单,易用和民主。
| ---
| --- Creative Computing , December 1981
,1981年12月

One element that encourages community: Dynamicland is the only place you can go to work on Realtalk projects. I can't work on projects alone at home. There's no GitHub for Realtalk. My time at Dynamicland feels precious, and that preciousness seems to elevate my creativity. Maybe this is what it felt like to have to schedule a block of time at a university computer before the PC era.
鼓励社区的一个因素:Dynamicland是您可以去Realtalk项目工作的唯一地方。我不能独自在家工作。 Realtalk没有GitHub。我在Dynamicland的时间感觉很珍贵,这种珍贵似乎提升了我的创造力。也许这就是在PC时代之前必须在大学计算机上安排一段时间的感觉。

Is Realtalk the future? No. In the larger arc of the research, it's just a single iteration. It's a suggestion: Maybe by going back to the drawing board, and redesigning things further down the stack, we can escape the Dark Age of the command line, and computational literacy itself can become more accessible and communal.
Realtalk是未来吗?不。在研究的更大范围内,它只是一次迭代。这是一个建议:也许通过回到绘图板,并重新设计堆栈中的东西,我们可以逃脱命令行的黑暗时代,计算知识本身可以变得更容易和社区。

Victor's dream is to be able to experience an entire scientific paper --- or the entire global supply chain --- in a computationally-driven room. To explore the data with more richness and depth than would be possible on a single screen. And on the most existential level, his hope is that the research might help to avert human extinction. If we can understand the complexity of our world more broadly, we'll be in a better long-term position to mitigate risks that may threaten civilization.
Victor的梦想是能够在计算驱动的房间中体验整个科学论文---或整个全球供应链。比单个屏幕上更丰富和更深入地探索数据。在最具存在性的层面上,他希望这项研究可能有助于避免人类灭绝。如果我们能够更广泛地理解世界的复杂性,我们将处于更好的长期地位,以减轻可能威胁文明的风险。


It's early 2019 and I'm walking to meet Bret Victor at his apartment in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on the coldest day of the year. I walk past IDEO's Cambridge office, situated right between Harvard and MIT. Design firms like IDEO sell a flavor of research that promise to deliver fresh new ideas to blue chip clients. The exterior is painted with geometric shapes and bright colors that signal an appropriate amount of creativity. It says,
现在是2019年初,我正走在马萨诸塞州剑桥市的公寓里,在一年中最冷的一天去见布雷特维克多。我走过位于哈佛大学和麻省理工学院之间的IDEO剑桥办公室。像IDEO这样的设计公司出售一系列研究,承诺为蓝筹客户提供新的创意。外观涂有几何形状和明亮的颜色,表明适当的创造力。它说, we're playful but serious. We'll help you feel safe moving into some new creative territory. We'll bring the best of Design Thinking and rapid prototyping. And we promise not to be too wild.

Dynamicland, in contrast, seems to cherish total intellectual freedom. When I first visited the lab at an open house in early 2018, I thought of Children's Television Workshop in its heyday: Countercultural, research-backed, subversive, experimental, sometimes brilliant, always underfunded. A few tireless inventors pour themselves into the work, day and night. Open a random drawer, and it would be no surprise to find a collection of toy eyeballs rolling around inside.
相反,Dynamicland似乎珍惜完全的知识自由。当我在2018年初第一次参观实验室时,我想到儿童电视工作室的鼎盛时期:反文化,研究支持,颠覆性,实验性,有时是辉煌,总是资金不足。一些不知疲倦的发明者日夜都在努力工作。打开随机抽屉,找到一堆玩具眼球在里面滚动也就不足为奇了。

Victor left the Bay Area last fall and is taking a sabbatical to recover from the intensity of years of fundraising and management of the lab. He greets me at his front door with a warm smile. Though he grew up in the Bay Area, Victor seems at home right here, steps from MIT's campus.
去年秋天,维克多离开湾区,正在休假,以便从实验室的筹款和管理年限中恢复过来。他带着温暖的笑容在前门迎接我。虽然他在湾区长大,但维克多似乎就在这里,距麻省理工学院的校园仅几步之遥。

He chugs away at a bottle of water while we talk. He has an encyclopedic knowledge of computer history and he loves to tell those stories. He told me about the hacker culture that emerged around the TX-0 computer at MIT in the mid-1950s. The TX-0 was down the hall from the Model Railroad Club, and some of the railroad nerds discovered that they could have the computer to themselves late at night, when researchers frequently overslept and missed their timeslots. The first known word processor was created there --- it was dubbed "Expensive Typewriter" because everyone thought it was absurd to use a $3 million computer to write a term paper. As a lifelong software engineer listening to Victor's stories, I felt a tinge of embarrassment, having never studied the history of computer science very deeply.
我们谈话的时候,他在一瓶水里偷偷溜走。他对计算机历史有着百科全书的知识,他喜欢讲述这些故事。他告诉我20世纪50年代中期麻省理工学院TX-0计算机周围出现的黑客文化。 TX-0从模型铁路俱乐部下来的大厅,一些铁路书呆子发现他们可以让自己的电脑深夜,当时研究人员经常睡过头而错过他们的时间段。第一个已知的文字处理器是在那里创建的 - 它被称为"昂贵的打字机",因为每个人都认为用300万美元的计算机来写一篇学期论文是荒谬的。作为一名聆听Victor故事的终身软件工程师,我感到有些尴尬,从未深入研究过计算机科学的历史。MIT’s TX-0 Computer, 1955

MIT's TX-0 Computer, 1955
麻省理工学院的TX-0计算机,1955年

Computer History Museum

We end up talking for several hours. As he starts telling me the story of the lab, I get the sense he has been looking for a sympathetic ear. Some catharsis after a six-year rollercoaster ride.
我们结束了几个小时的谈话。当他开始告诉我实验室的故事时,我感觉他一直在寻找一个有同情心的耳朵。经过6年的过山车之后,有些宣泄。

He seems tired. CDG was his first management role. For a prolific maker, that's a big shift that requires a lot of energy and personal growth. He has to own the context for context-making (Dynamicland) and contribute to the context itself (Realtalk), all while dreaming about --- but having almost no time left over to make --- projects within the context.
他好像很累。 CDG是他的第一个管理角色。对于一个多产的制造商来说,这是一个需要大量精力和个人成长的重大转变。他必须拥有上下文创建的上下文(Dynamicland),并为上下文本身(Realtalk)做出贡献,同时梦想着 - 但几乎没有时间留下来 - 在上下文中进行项目。

But this is clearly his life's work. He often flashes a sly grin as he tells stories about Dynamicland, looking like a little boy who knows he's gotten away with something very clever. We talk a lot about the context-building work he did, and he says he has tried to treat Dynamicland like a biological containment facility. He feels there's been so much damage done by half-baked ideas stolen from research labs by entrepreneurs. This is clearly a big concern for him. "The thing about taking a deep idea and making a mass-produced, superficial treatment of it, is that after that point it becomes impossible to see the deep idea," he says. | | As to whether Jobs really stole something from Xerox PARC or not, the story is more complicated. As Malcolm Gladwell
但这显然是他一生的工作。当他讲述有关Dynamicland的故事时,他经常闪烁着狡猾的笑容,看起来像一个小男孩,他知道他已经得到了一些非常聪明的东西。我们谈论了他所做的背景建设工作,他说他曾试图将Dynamicland视为生物遏制设施。他觉得企业家从研究实验室偷走的半生不熟的想法造成了很大的破坏。这显然是他的一个大问题。 "关于深入思考并对其进行大规模生产,表面处理的问题在于,在那之后,我们无法看到深刻的想法,"他说。 | |至于乔布斯是否真的偷了施乐PARC的东西,这个故事就更复杂了。正如马尔科姆·格拉德威尔tells it in The New Yorker, Apple didn't just copy and paste the GUI's look and feel from PARC, they evolved it in order to bring it to market, inventing the menu bar, the pull-down menu, the trash can, and direct manipulation of GUI elements that made the whole thing much more user-friendly.
Apple不仅仅复制并粘贴了PARC的GUI外观,他们为了将其推向市场而发展了它,发明了菜单栏,下拉菜单,垃圾桶以及GUI元素的直接操作使整个事情更加用户友好。

He told me the story of Steve Jobs lifting the idea for the graphical user interface from the Smalltalk team for use in the Macintosh. In Smalltalk, the GUI was used for programming the computer. The original concept of object-oriented programming was entirely graphical --- objects on the screen represented objects in the program. That was the deep idea. But in the Macintosh, the GUI didn't allow for programming the computer at all. Jobs made a shallow clone of Smalltalk's deep ideas in order to get the first Macintosh onto the market.
他告诉我史蒂夫乔布斯从Smalltalk团队提升图形用户界面的想法,以便在Macintosh中使用。在Smalltalk中,GUI用于编程计算机。面向对象编程的最初概念完全是图形化的 - 屏幕上的对象代表程序中的对象。这是一个深刻的想法。但是在Macintosh中,GUI根本不允许对计算机进行编程。为了让第一台Macintosh进入市场,乔布斯对Smalltalk的深层创意进行了浅层克隆。

Victor's commitment to treasuring deep ideas is his greatest strength and his greatest weakness. It gives him the purpose and energy to create the context for Dynamicland, and to commit to his own deep ideas for long enough to bring them to life in beautiful ways. The risk, however, is that nothing is ever considered done and therefore nothing is ever shared. That every share is provisional. He seems to want to be understood so deeply that no expression of his ideas is ever quite deep enough.
维克多对珍惜深层思想的承诺是他最大的优势和最大的弱点。它赋予了他为Dynamicland创造背景的目的和能量,并且长期致力于他自己的深层思想,以美丽的方式将它们带入生活。然而,风险是没有任何事情被认为是完成的,因此没有任何共享。每一份都是临时的。他似乎希望得到如此深刻的理解,以至于他的思想表达不够深入。

Usually, one person doesn't play both inventor and virtuoso. Les Paul invented the electric guitar to bring more warmth to his smooth jazz, and he could never have foreseen how Jimi Hendrix would use it. "The overload of the guitar comes to connote the idea of breaking the frame of the equipment --- doing something that can't be contained --- and this adds a whole new side to one's expressive palette, because one can now juxtapose things that can be contained against things that 'can't'," wrote Brian Eno in his 1996 diary,
通常,一个人不兼顾发明家和演奏家。 Les Paul发明了电吉他,为他流畅的爵士乐带来了更多的温暖,他永远无法预见到Jimi Hendrix会如何使用它。 "吉他的超载意味着打破设备框架的想法 - 做一些无法控制的东西 - 这为一个人的表现调色板增添了一个全新的一面,因为现在可以并置一些东西布莱恩·伊诺(Brian Eno)在1996年的日记中写道,这可以遏制"不能"的事情。 A Year With Swollen Appendices .

Victor is Jimi Hendrix playing the role of Les Paul, and there's a tension here that makes him well suited to endure cycles of making and breaking the medium as it evolves.
Victor是Jimi Hendrix扮演Les Paul的角色,这里有一种紧张感,这使他非常适合在演变过程中忍受制作和打破媒体的循环。

He doesn't mitigate the never-ending nature of the work by looking to the horizon for market potential, as a startup founder would. The pressure on a non-profit research lab is different: They need to demonstrate the research in a way that invites collaboration and funding. But Victor and his team have been burned out on fundraising, which requires an incredible amount of time and energy. Also, he has his own sense of when a research cycle is done, and he doesn't want funding to dictate that.
作为初创公司的创始人,他并没有通过展望市场潜力来减轻这项工作永无止境的本质。非营利研究实验室的压力不同:他们需要以一种邀请合作和资金的方式展示研究。但是Victor和他的团队在筹款方面已经筋疲力尽,这需要大量的时间和精力。此外,他对研究周期何时完成有自己的意识,并且他不希望资金来决定这一点。

It may be what he needs, however. The funding rollercoaster has been an instrumental driver at Dynamicland. The lab has benefitted from external accountability to reign in the very personal creative research work, and Dynamicland has a strong record of creative output since 2013, even though Victor doesn't seem to relish being the limelight for a big demo or presentation. The work shows itself off in the tech community. Dynamicland is social media candy, and visitors can't help posting about how cool Realtalk is, so the project has a life of its own on the internet.
然而,这可能是他所需要的。资金过山车一直是Dynamicland的重要推动者。该实验室受益于外部责任,在个人创意研究工作中占据优势,而且自2013年以来,Dynamicland拥有强大的创意产出记录,尽管Victor似乎并不喜欢成为大型演示或演示的风头。这项工作在科技界展现出来。 Dynamicland是社交媒体的糖果,访客不禁发布Realtalk有多酷,因此该项目在互联网上拥有自己的生命。

But how will the research reach a larger audience? Can the impact of it be designed or even steered, or is it completely out of their hands?
但是这项研究将如何覆盖更多的受众?它的影响可以设计甚至是转向,还是完全不在他们的手中?

"I don't know what the solution to reaching a large audience is," he says. "Maybe it takes a hundred years. It was a hundred years from the invention of the printing press to books being part of the general culture."
"我不知道接触大量观众的解决方案是什么,"他说。 "也许这需要一百年的时间。从印刷机的发明到作为一般文化的一部分的书籍已有一百年了。"

Later, he told me they have plans. In July 2019, Dynamicland started working on Realtalk-2020 --- the next iteration of their programming system.
后来,他告诉我他们有计划。在2019年7月,Dynamicland开始研究Realtalk-2020--它们的编程系统的下一次迭代。

In the purview of a venture capitalist, technological innovation happens through the evolutionary process of the entire startup ecosystem. Through many cycles of birth and death and acquisition. But, if every startup operates under exactly the same set of constraints of runway and product-market fit and single-origin espresso, it puts a damper on exactly the kind of deliberate creativity that Dynamicland fosters. We need more organizations like Dynamicland, occupying the space between startups and academic research labs. Places designed to dream in longer timelines.
在风险投资家的职权范围内,技术创新通过整个创业生态系统的演化过程发生。通过许多出生和死亡和收购的周期。但是,如果每个创业公司都在完全相同的跑道和产品市场契合以及单一来源浓缩咖啡的限制下运作,那么它就会对Dynamicland所培养的那种刻意的创造力产生影响。我们需要更多像Dynamicland这样的组织,占据创业公司和学术研究实验室之间的空间。旨在梦想更长时间的地方。


Back home in San Francisco, I can't help but wonder about the inner motivations that the researchers bring to the work. If the research is very open-ended, then perhaps a researcher's work is only "done" once they resolve a core dilemma within themselves. Chiacchieri wants to help people feel happier, and this discovery has led him to psychotherapy training. Schachman cares so much about eye contact and playful collaboration in Realtalk, because he wants to feel more connected. Te hopes to create a medium that truly honors diversity, because she wants to feel a greater sense of belonging in the world of computational research.
回到旧金山的家中,我不禁怀疑研究人员为工作带来的内在动机。如果研究是非常开放的,那么研究人员的工作或许只有在解决了自身内部的核心困境后才能"完成"。 Chiacchieri希望帮助人们感到更快乐,这一发现使他接受了心理治疗培训。 Schachman非常关心Realtalk中的眼神交流和俏皮合作,因为他希望感觉更有联系。我希望创造一种真正尊重多样性的媒介,因为她希望在计算研究领域感受到更大的归属感。

And Victor?
还有维克多?

Through the millennia, empirical evidence and bottom-up scientific discovery has gradually claimed territory from traditional top-down religious doctrine. What we consider unknown or mysterious continues to shrink, even if the scale of the cosmos means that the shrinkage takes the form of ∞ - x, where ∞ is the vast unknown and x is all of science.
几千年来,经验证据和自下而上的科学发现逐渐从传统的自上而下的宗教教义中获得了领土。我们认为未知或神秘的东西继续缩小,即使宇宙的规模意味着收缩采取∞ - x的形式,其中∞是巨大的未知数,x是科学的全部。

From the outside, Victor seems most excited about expanding x, following in the footsteps of the great scientists and researchers. But what are his inner motivations?
从外面看,维克多似乎对扩张x感到非常兴奋,追随伟大的科学家和研究人员的脚步。但他的内心动机是什么?

A desire to expand awareness. To be more "in the world." To experience the full complexity of reality just as it is. To explore the creative potential of empty space. To be free of the conditioned thinking of peers. To break out of prisons of representation.
渴望扩大意识。更加"在世界上"。尽可能地体验现实的全部复杂性。探索空间的创造潜力。摆脱同龄人的条件思维。打破监狱的代表权。

Coincidentally, these are major themes of the Indian spiritual philosopher J. Krishnamurti's discourses on spiritual enlightenment in the mid-20th century.
巧合的是,这些是印度精神哲学家克里希那穆提在20世纪中期关于精神启蒙的论述的主题。

Krishnamurti had the difficult job of speaking for the ∞ side of the divide. He had a hyper-rational perspective on spirituality, he distrusted religion and ideology, and he promoted rigorous empirical self-inquiry. While Victor explores representation, simulation, and modeling of the external world, Krishnamurti asks that we methodically, internally let go of all representations and concepts.
克里希那穆提(Krishnamurti)在分裂的∞方面说话很困难。他对灵性有一种超理性的观点,他不信任宗教和意识形态,他提倡严谨的实证自我探究。当Victor探索外部世界的表现,模拟和建模时,Krishnamurti要求我们有条不紊地在内部放弃所有的表征和概念。

"[Is the mind] capable of being free, empty?", writes Krisnamurti. "It can be empty only by understanding all its projections and activities, not off and on, but from day to day, from moment to moment. Then you will find ... that the state of creative emptiness is not a thing to be cultivated --- it is there, it comes darkly, without any invitation, and only in that state is there a possibility of renewal, newness and revolution."
"[心灵]能够自由,空虚吗?"Krisnamurti写道。 "只有理解所有的预测和活动才能是空的,不是一天又一天,而是日复一日,从一刻到一刻。然后你会发现...创造性空虚的状态不是一种需要培养的东西---它在那里,它是黑暗的,没有任何邀请,只有在这种状态下才有可能重建,新奇和革命。"

Victor wants to experience the revolutionary ∞. He seems to be on a spiritual quest, seeking an insight that Alan Kay calls "a kerpow." An opening into a new dimension. Because deeper than any deep idea, somewhere beyond the land of ideas entirely, there is a rich and boundless terrain that has never been mapped, though we have tried for thousands of years.
维克多想要体验革命性的∞。他似乎正在进行精神追求,寻求Alan Kay称之为"kerpow"的洞察力。开辟新的维度。因为比任何深层次的想法更深刻,完全超出了思想的范围,有一个从未被绘制过的丰富无边的地形,尽管我们已经尝试了数千年。


Thanks to Siobhán Cronin, Matt Hackett, and Xiaowei Wang for your feedback and support.

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