• US and UK spy agencies piggyback on commercial data
• Details can include age, location and sexual orientation
• Documents also reveal targeted tools against individual phones
GCHQ documents use Angry Birds -- reportedly downloaded more than 1.7bn times -- as a case study for app data collection.
GCHQ文件使用愤怒的小鸟 - 据报道下载量超过17亿次 - 作为应用数据收集的案例研究。
The National Security Agency and its UK counterpart
和它的英国同行GCHQ have been developing capabilities to take advantage of "leaky" smartphone apps, such as the wildly popular Angry Birds game, that transmit users' private information across the internet, according to top secret documents.
The data pouring onto communication networks from the new generation of iPhone and
数据从新一代iPhone和iPhone上涌入通信网络Android apps ranges from phone model and screen size to personal details such as age, gender and location. Some apps, the documents state, can share users' most sensitive information such as sexual orientation -- and one app recorded in the material even sends specific sexual preferences such as whether or not the user may be a swinger.
应用程序的范围从手机型号和屏幕尺寸到个人详细信息，如年龄，性别和位置。一些应用程序，即文档声明，可以共享用户最敏感的信息，如性取向 - 并且材料中记录的一个应用程序甚至发送特定的性偏好，例如用户是否可能是摇摆人。
Many smartphone owners will be unaware of the full extent this information is being shared across the internet, and even the most sophisticated would be unlikely to realise that all of it is available for the spy agencies to collect.
Dozens of classified documents, provided to the Guardian by whistleblower Edward Snowden and reported in partnership with
数十份机密文件，由举报人爱德华·斯诺登提供给"卫报"并与其合作报道the New York Times and
and ProPublica, detail the NSA and GCHQ efforts to piggyback on this commercial data collection for their own purposes.
Scooping up information the apps are sending about their users allows the agencies to collect large quantities of mobile phone data from their existing mass surveillance tools -- such as cable taps, or from international mobile networks -- rather than solely from hacking into individual mobile handsets.
Exploiting phone information and location is a high-priority effort for the intelligence agencies, as terrorists and other intelligence targets make substantial use of phones in planning and carrying out their activities, for example by using phones as triggering devices in conflict zones. The NSA has cumulatively spent more than $1bn in its phone targeting efforts.
The disclosures also reveal how much the shift towards smartphone browsing could benefit spy agencies' collection efforts.
One slide from a May 2010 NSA presentation on getting data from smartphones -- breathlessly titled "Golden Nugget!" -- sets out the agency's "perfect scenario": "Target uploading photo to a social media site taken with a mobile device. What can we get?"
2010年5月美国国家安全局关于从智能手机获取数据的演示文稿中的一张幻灯片 - 令人窒息地名为"Golden Nugget！" - 列出该机构的"完美场景"："将照片上传到使用移动设备拍摄的社交媒体网站。我们能得到什么？"
The question is answered in the notes to the slide: from that event alone, the agency said it could obtain a "possible image", email selector, phone, buddy lists, and "a host of other social working data as well as location".
In practice, most major social media sites, such as Facebook and Twitter, strip photos of identifying location metadata (known as EXIF data) before publication. However, depending on when this is done during upload, such data may still, briefly, be available for collection by the agencies as it travels across the networks.
Depending on what profile information a user had supplied, the documents suggested, the agency would be able to collect almost every key detail of a user's life: including home country, current location (through geolocation), age, gender, zip code, marital status -- options included "single", "married", "divorced", "swinger" and more -- income, ethnicity, sexual orientation, education level, and number of children.
根据用户提供的个人资料信息，建议的文件，该机构几乎可以收集用户生活的每个关键细节：包括本国，当前位置（通过地理位置），年龄，性别，邮政编码，婚姻状况 - 选项包括"单身"，"已婚"，"离婚"，"摇摆"等 - 收入，种族，性取向，教育程度和儿童人数。
The agencies also made use of their mobile interception capabilities to collect location information in bulk, from Google and other mapping apps. One basic effort by
这些机构还利用其移动拦截功能从谷歌和其他地图应用程序中批量收集位置信息。一个基本的努力GCHQ and the NSA was to build a database geolocating every mobile phone mast in the world -- meaning that just by taking tower ID from a handset, location information could be gleaned.
美国国家安全局将建立一个地理定位世界上每个移动电话桅杆的数据库 - 这意味着只需从手机获取塔ID，就可以收集到位置信息。
A more sophisticated effort, though, relied on intercepting Google Maps queries made on smartphones, and using them to collect large volumes of location information.
So successful was this effort that one 2008 document noted that "[i]t effectively means that anyone using Google Maps on a smartphone is working in support of a GCHQ system."
The information generated by each app is chosen by its developers, or by the company that delivers an app's adverts. The documents do not detail whether the agencies actually collect the potentially sensitive details some apps are capable of storing or transmitting, but any such information would likely qualify as content, rather than metadata.
Data collected from smartphone apps is subject to the same laws and minimisation procedures as all other NSA activity -- procedures that the US president, Barack Obama, suggested may be subject to reform
从智能手机应用程序收集的数据受到与所有其他NSA活动相同的法律和最小化程序 - 美国总统巴拉克•奥巴马（Barack Obama）建议的程序可能会受到改革in a speech 10 days ago. But the president focused largely on the NSA's collection of the metadata from US phone calls and made no mention in his address of the large amounts of data the agency collects from smartphone apps.
The latest disclosures could also add to mounting public concern about how the technology sector collects and uses information, especially for those outside the US, who enjoy fewer privacy protections than Americans. A January poll for the Washington Post showed 69% of US adults were already concerned about how tech companies such as Google used and stored their information.
The documents do not make it clear how much of the information that can be taken from apps is routinely collected, stored or searched, nor how many users may be affected. The NSA says it does not target Americans and its capabilities are deployed only against "valid foreign intelligence targets".
The documents do set out in great detail exactly how much information can be collected from widely popular apps. One document held on GCHQ's internal Wikipedia-style guide for staff details what can be collected from different apps. Though it uses Android apps for most of its examples, it suggests much of the same data could be taken from equivalent apps on
这些文件确实详细列出了可以从广受欢迎的应用程序中收集多少信息。一份关于GCHQ内部维基百科风格指南的文件，详细介绍了可从不同应用程序收集的内容。虽然它在大多数示例中都使用Android应用程序，但它表明大部分相同的数据可以从相应的应用程序中获取iPhone or other platforms.
The GCHQ documents set out examples of what information can be extracted from different ad platforms, using perhaps the most popular mobile phone game of all time,
GCHQ文件列出了可以从不同的广告平台中提取哪些信息的示例，使用了有史以来最流行的手机游戏，Angry Birds -- which has reportedly been downloaded more than 1.7bn times -- as a case study.
From some app platforms, relatively limited, but identifying, information such as exact handset model, the unique ID of the handset, software version, and similar details are all that are transmitted.
Other apps choose to transmit much more data, meaning the agency could potentially net far more. One mobile ad platform, Millennial Media, appeared to offer particularly rich information. Millennial Media's website states it has partnered with Rovio on a special edition of Angry Birds; with Farmville maker Zynga; with Call of Duty developer Activision, and many other major franchises.
其他应用程序选择传输更多数据，这意味着该机构可能会净得多。一个移动广告平台Millennial Media似乎提供了特别丰富的信息。 Millennial Media的网站声称它与Rovio合作推出了一本特别版的"愤怒的小鸟";与Farmville制造商Zynga;与使命召唤开发商Activision，以及许多其他主要特许经营权。
Rovio, the maker of Angry Birds, said it had no knowledge of any NSA or GCHQ programs looking to extract data from its apps users.
"Rovio doesn't have any previous knowledge of this matter, and have not been aware of such activity in 3rd party advertising networks," said Saara Bergström, Rovio's VP of marketing and communications. "Nor do we have any involvement with the organizations you mentioned [NSA and GCHQ]."
Millennial Media did not respond to a request for comment.
In December, the Washington Post reported on how the NSA could make use of advertising tracking files generated through normal internet browsing -- known as cookies -- from Google and others to get information on potential targets.
However, the richer personal data available to many apps, coupled with real-time geolocation, and the uniquely identifying handset information many apps transmit give the agencies a far richer data source than conventional web-tracking cookies.
"They are gathered in bulk, and are currently our single largest type of events," the document stated.
The ability to obtain targeted intelligence by hacking individual handsets has been well documented, both through several years of hacker conferences and previous NSA disclosures in
通过黑客会议和之前的NSA披露，已经充分记录了通过黑客手机获取目标智能的能力。Der Spiegel, and both the NSA and GCHQ have extensive tools ready to deploy against iPhone, Android and other phone platforms.
GCHQ's targeted tools against individual smartphones are named after characters in the TV series The Smurfs. An ability to make the phone's microphone 'hot', to listen in to conversations, is named "Nosey Smurf". High-precision geolocation is called "Tracker Smurf", power management -- an ability to stealthily activate an a phone that is apparently turned off -- is "Dreamy Smurf", while the spyware's self-hiding capabilities are codenamed "Paranoid Smurf".
GCHQ针对个人智能手机的针对性工具以电视剧"蓝精灵"中的角色命名。能够使手机的麦克风"热"，听取对话的能力被命名为"Nosy Smurf"。高精度地理定位被称为"Tracker Smurf"，电源管理 - 一种隐身激活显然被关闭的手机的能力 - 是"Dreamy Smurf"，而间谍软件的自我隐藏功能代号为"Paranoid Smurf"。
Those capability names are set out in a much broader 2010 presentation that sheds light on spy agencies' aspirations for mobile phone interception, and that less-documented mass-collection abilities.
The cover sheet of the document sets out the team's aspirations:
Another slide details weak spots in where data flows from mobile phone network providers to the wider internet, where the agency attempts to intercept communications. These are locations either within a particular network, or international roaming exchanges (known as GRXs), where data from travellers roaming outside their home country is routed.
These are particularly useful to the agency as data is often only weakly encrypted on such networks, and includes extra information such as handset ID or mobile number -- much stronger target identifiers than usual IP addresses or similar information left behind when PCs and laptops browse the internet.
这些对于该机构特别有用，因为数据通常仅在这些网络上进行弱加密，并且包括诸如手机ID或手机号码之类的额外信息 - 比通常的IP地址或PC和笔记本电脑浏览时留下的类似信息强得多的目标标识符。互联网。
The NSA said its phone interception techniques are only used against valid targets, and are subject to stringent legal safeguards.
"The communications of people who are not valid foreign intelligence targets are not of interest to the National Security Agency," said a spokeswoman in a statement.
"Any implication that NSA's foreign intelligence collection is focused on the smartphone or social media communications of everyday Americans is not true. Moreover, NSA does not profile everyday Americans as it carries out its foreign intelligence mission. We collect only those communications that we are authorized by law to collect for valid foreign intelligence and counterintelligence purposes -- regardless of the technical means used by the targets.
"美国国家安全局的外国情报收集专注于日常美国人的智能手机或社交媒体传播的任何暗示都是不正确的。此外，美国国家安全局不会描述日常美国人执行其外国情报任务的情况。我们只收集那些我们获得授权的通信根据法律收集有效的外国情报和反间谍目的 - 无论目标使用何种技术手段。
"Because some data of US persons may at times be incidentally collected in NSA's lawful foreign intelligence mission, privacy protections for US persons exist across the entire process concerning the use, handling, retention, and dissemination of data. In addition, NSA actively works to remove extraneous data, to include that of innocent foreign citizens, as early as possible in the process.
"Continuous and selective publication of specific techniques and tools lawfully used by NSA to pursue legitimate foreign intelligence targets is detrimental to the security of the United States and our allies -- and places at risk those we are sworn to protect."
"持续和有选择地公布国家安全局合法使用的特定技术和工具，以追求合法的外国情报目标，这对美国和我们的盟友的安全是不利的 - 并且使我们发誓要保护的人处于危险之中。"
The NSA declined to respond to a series of queries on how routinely capabilities against apps were deployed, or on the specific minimisation procedures used to prevent US citizens' information being stored through such measures.
GCHQ declined to comment on any of its specific programs, but stressed all of its activities were proportional and complied with UK law.
"It is a longstanding policy that we do not comment on intelligence matters," said a spokesman.
"Furthermore, all of GCHQ's work is carried out in accordance with a strict legal and policy framework that ensures that our activities are authorised, necessary and proportionate, and that there is rigorous oversight, including from the Secretary of State, the Interception and Intelligence Services Commissioners and the Parliamentary Intelligence and Security Committee. All our operational processes rigorously support this position."
• A separate disclosure on Wednesday, published by
•周三公布的单独披露，由Glenn Greenwald and NBC News, gave examples of how GCHQ was making use of its cable-tapping capabilities to monitor YouTube and social media traffic in real-time.
GCHQ's cable-tapping and internet buffering capabilities , codenamed Tempora, were
GCHQ的电缆窃听和互联网缓冲功能，代号Tempora，是disclosed by the Guardian in June, but the new documents published by NBC from a GCHQ presentation titled "Psychology: A New Kind of SIGDEV" set out a program codenamed Squeaky Dolphin which gave the British spies "broad real-time monitoring" of "YouTube Video Views", "URLs 'Liked' on Facebook" and "Blogspot/Blogger Visits".
但NBC在GCHQ发表的题为"心理学：一种新的SIGDEV"的演讲中发表的新文件提出了一个代号为Squeaky Dolphin的节目，该节目让英国间谍"广泛实时监控""YouTube视频观看"，"URL"喜欢'在Facebook上'和'Blogspot / Blogger访问'。
A further slide noted that "passive" -- a term for large-scale surveillance through cable intercepts -- give the agency "scalability".
另一张幻灯片指出，"被动" - 通过电缆拦截进行大规模监视的术语 - 赋予该机构"可扩展性"。
The means of interception mean GCHQ and NSA could obtain data without any knowledge or co-operation from the technology companies. Spokespeople for the NSA and GCHQ told NBC all programs were carried out in accordance with US and UK law.
• This article was amended on 28 January 2014. It referred to martial status, instead of marital status. This has been corrected.