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With 800 firms now joining the Facebook advertising boycott, the man whose idea it was explains how the company could easily clean up its act.
现在有800家公司加入了抵制Facebook广告的行动,提出这个想法的人解释了该公司如何能较轻松地改善这一行为。

Jim Steyer: ‘We are focused on hate, misinformation and racism. And the biggest offender is Facebook.’ Photograph: Stephen McCarthy/Sportsfile/Getty Images
Jim Steyer:“我们关注的是仇恨、错误信息和种族主义。而它最大的罪人是Facebook。摄影来自:斯蒂芬·麦卡锡/体育档案/盖蒂图片

Andrew Anthony
安德鲁•安东尼
Sun 5 Jul 2020 08.00 BST
2020年7月5日星期日8:00英国夏令时

With more than two billion users Facebook is bigger than Christianity,” says Stanford law professor Jim Steyer. “Their ability to amplify hate speech or white supremacy or racist messages is so extraordinary because of the scale of the platform.”
拥有超过20亿用户的Facebook比基督教还强大,”斯坦福大学法学教授Jim Steyer说。“由于这个平台的规模,他们放大仇恨言论、白人至上或种族主义言论的能力非常惊人。”

It’s a typically bold statement from the man who set up the Stop Hate for Profit (SHFP) campaign calling on advertisers to withdraw from Facebook for the month of July. More than 500 firms have joined the temporary boycott, including Coca-Cola, Adidas and Unilever.
这是一个典型的大胆的声明,他发起了停止憎恨利润(SHFP)运动,呼吁广告商在7月份退出Facebook。包括可口可乐、阿迪达斯和联合利华在内的500多家公司加入了这次暂时的抵制行动。

Facebook’s stock price has taken a tumble, though it still remains high, and last week its communications chief, Nick Clegg, was busy trying to persuade anyone who’d listen that the platform has a “zero tolerance” approach to hate speech. But, he wrote in a policy statement posted on Thursday, “[w]hen content falls short of being classified as hate speech... we err on the side of free expression because, ultimately, the best way to counter hurtful, divisive, offensive speech, is more speech. Exposing it to sunlight is better than hiding it in the shadows.”
Facebook的股价尽管仍处于高位,但已大幅下跌。上周,该公司的公关主管尼克•克莱格(Nick Clegg)正忙于说服任何听到该平台对仇恨言论采取“零容忍”态度的人。但是,他在周四发布的一份政策声明中写道,“如果发布的内容不再存在于仇恨言论……我们在言论自由方面会犯错误,因为从根本上说,对抗伤害性、分裂性和攻击性言论的最佳方式是更多的有善言论。因为把它暴露在阳光下总比藏在阴影里好。”

As far as Steyer is concerned, Clegg, the former deputy prime minister and leader of the Liberal Democrats, has become a mouthpiece for social destruction.
但是在斯蒂尔看来,前副首相、自由民主党领袖克莱格已经成为社会破坏的代言人。

“Nick should be embarrassed for putting that forward,” says Steyer. “He and Mark would flunk a fifth-grade civics class with their libertarian ‘free speech trumps everything in society’ argument. The first amendment doesn’t apply to Facebook. The first amendment applies to government restrictions on speech in the United States.”
“尼克应该为提出这个问题而感到尴尬,”斯泰尔说。“他和马克将以自由主义者的'自由言论胜过社会上的一切'这一论点,使五年级公民阶级不及格。第一修正案并不适用于Facebook,而是适用于美国政府对言论的限制。”

He says the campaign is not afraid to “shame people who do terrible things to our society,” as long as it doesn’t involve ad hominem attacks. As forthright as he is in his opinions, some of the heat is taken out of them by the fact he seems to call everyone by their first name. This may be because he knows everyone. A renowned networker, the ebullient 64-year-old has been said to be “connected to more big names than Kevin Bacon”. His “little brother”, as he calls him, is the billionaire former hedge-fund manager Tom Steyer who ran a conspicuously unsuccessful campaign for the 2020 Democratic presidential nomination. He dropped out in February, having spent $191m on advertising.
他说,只要不涉及人身攻击,这个活动就不会害怕“让那些对我们社会做坏事的人感到羞耻”。尽管他的观点很直率,但他似乎对每个人都直呼其名,这一事实也减轻了一些压力。这可能是因为他认识每个人。这位64岁的知名社交达人现年64岁,热情洋溢,“与凯文·培根(Kevin Bacon)相比,拥有更多的知名度”。他所谓的“小兄弟”是亿万富翁前对冲基金经理汤姆•斯泰尔(Tom Steyer)。他曾在2020年的民主党总统候选人提名竞选中惨败。在花了1.91亿美元在广告上之后,他在2月份退出了竞选。

Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg. ‘If he really wanted to, he could clean up that platform,’ says Jim Steyer Photograph: Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images
Facebook首席执行官马克·扎克伯格。“如果他真的这样想,他可以来负责清理这个平台,”Jim Steyer说。   摄影:Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images

Among the names he mentions is “Sheryl” – Sandberg, the number two at Facebook. Steyer likes to joke that he is “no longer invited to Sheryl’s Hanukkah party”, as a result of his 2012 book, Talking Back to Facebook.
他提到的名字中有“谢丽尔(Sheryl)”,也就是Facebook的二号人物桑德伯格。斯泰尔喜欢开玩笑地说, 由于他在2012年出版的《Talking Back to Facebook》一书,“不再被邀请参加Sheryl的光明节聚会”

It argued that Facebook, along with other social media platforms, had “a very significant and negative impact on the social, emotional and cognitive development of children”. Steyer is the founder of Common Sense Media, a non-profit organisation that promotes safe media and entertainment for children. A New Yorker, he started out as a schoolteacher in Harlem and the South Bronx, moved into civil rights – he did death penalty work with the lawyer and activist Bryan Stevenson and ran the NAACP Legal Defence Fund – and began teaching civil liberties at Stanford in 1986.
报告认为,Facebook和其他社交媒体平台“对儿童的社交、情感和认知发展产生了非常重大的负面影响”。斯泰尔是非盈利组织常识媒体(Common Sense Media)的创始人,该组织致力于为儿童宣传安全的媒体和娱乐。作为一名纽约人,他最初在哈莱姆区和南布朗克斯当教师,后来转到民权领域——他与律师兼活动家布莱恩·史蒂文森(Bryan Stevenson)一起从事死刑方面的工作,并经营全国有色人种协进会(NAACP)法律辩护基金——1986年开始在斯坦福大学教授公民自由。

Today, with his flowing blond hair and wearing an old T-shirt, Steyer looks every inch a Californian. On our Zoom call he even uses an image of a surfer’s wave for his screen backdrop. Since his book, his attitude towards Facebook has if anything hardened. Last autumn he found himself in conversation about social media with a new friend, “Sacha”, the comic actor Sacha Baron Cohen – best known for the satirical inventions Borat and Ali G. “He’s a very, very intelligent man,” says Steyer.
如今,斯泰尔一头飘逸的金发,穿着一件旧t恤,看起来完全是个加州人。在我们的Zoom通话中,他甚至将冲浪者的波浪的图像作为他的屏幕背景。自从他的书出版以来,他对Facebook的态度变得强硬起来。去年秋天,他发现自己与一个新朋友Sacha Baron Cohen在社交媒体上进行交谈,后者是讽刺发明Borat和Ali G最为人所知的漫画家Sacha Baron Cohen。“他是一个非常非常聪明的人,” Steeer说。

They were joined by Jonathan Greenblatt, head of the Anti-Defamation League. Out of their discussion came the idea for SHFP. Steyer’s intention was to launch the campaign back in January but decided more partners were needed. In the event Baron Cohen made a cutting reference to Facebook’s CEO when he introduced JoJo Rabbit at the Golden Globes.

反诽谤联盟负责人乔纳森·格林布拉特(Jonathan Greenblatt)也加入了他们的行列。并从他们的讨论中产生了SHFP的想法。斯泰尔原本打算在1月份启动这项活动,但后来决定需要更多的合作伙伴。在这次活动中,拜伦·科恩(Baron Cohen)在金球奖颁奖典礼上介绍兔子JoJo(JoJo Rabbit)时,对Facebook的首席执行官进行了刻薄的评论。

“It’s critical that the UK and Europe speak up – they’re incredibly important territories for Facebook“——Jim Steyer
“英国和欧洲的重要呼吁至关重要——它们是Facebook极其重要的版块。”——吉姆·斯泰尔(Jim Steyer)

“The hero of this next movie is a naive, misguided child who spreads Nazi propaganda and only has imaginary friends,” said Baron Cohen. “His name is Mark Zuckerberg.”
科恩(Baron Cohen)说:“下一部电影的主人公是一个天真、误入歧途的孩子,他四处传播纳粹宣传,尽管他只有假想的朋友。”“他的名字就叫马克·扎克伯格。”

It was the protests provoked by the death of George Floyd in Minneapolis on 25 May that led civil rights groups including Colour of Change and NAACP to come on board with Steyer. “A lot of the white supremacist arguments being made and falsehoods about both Covid-19 and racial justice were on Facebook,” he explains.
5月25日,乔治·弗洛伊德(George Floyd)在明尼阿波利斯的死亡引发了抗议活动,这使得包括“改变肤色”(Colour of Change)和全国有色人种协进会(NAACP)在内的民权组织加入了斯泰尔的阵营。他解释说:“关于‘Covid-19’和‘种族正义’等许多白人至上主义的争论和谎言都出现在了Facebook上。”

The newly formed coalition’s strategy was to “hit Facebook in the wallet”. But it’s a very large and deep wallet. The company generates more than $70bn in annual advertising revenues, and most of that money comes not from major brands but from small businesses.
新成立的联盟的策略是“从‘钱包’上打击Facebook”。但这是一个非常大和深的‘钱包’。尽管该公司每年的广告收入超过700亿美元,其中大部分不是来自大品牌,而是来自小企业。

So far the boycott has been limited to the United States, which means many of the companies that have been vocal about withdrawing their advertising continue to spend money on Facebook elsewhere in the world. Indeed, some have simply shifted their advertising to Instagram (also owned by Facebook) or targeted Facebook users through the Facebook Audience Network.
到目前为止,抵制活动仅限于美国,这意味着许多公开表示要撤回广告的公司仍然继续在世界其他地方的Facebook上花钱。事实上,有些公司只是将广告转移到Instagram(也属于Facebook),或者通过Facebook受众网络(Facebook Audience Network)定位到Facebook用户。

Steyer is aware of these get-outs, but says he’s astonished by how quickly the campaign has taken off, far outstripping his expectations. In any case, he says, this is just the first stage. SHFP are now seeking a global response, and are looking to the UK and Europe to follow suit. They’ve set up a London office, headed by former Conservative culture minister Ed Vaizey.
斯泰尔意识到了这些结果,但他说,他对这项运动开展得如此之快感到惊讶,远远超出了他的预期。他说,无论如何,这只是第一步。SHFP目前正在寻求全球响应,并希望英国和欧洲也能够效仿。他们在伦敦设立了一个办公室,由前保守党文化部长埃德·瓦伊泽(Ed Vaizey)领导。

“It’s critical the UK and Europe speak up,” says Steyer, “because they’re incredibly important territories for Facebook and the big tech companies, and there should be a universal rejection of hate speech and racism and mass disinformation because they’re actually undermining the norms of our democracy.”
“英国和欧洲大声疾呼至关重要,”斯泰尔说,“因为它们对Facebook和大型科技公司来说是非常重要的领域。仇恨言论、种族主义和大规模虚假信息应该被普遍排斥,因为它们实际上正在破坏我们民主的准则。”

Jim Steyer with Hillary Clinton last year. Photograph: Justin Sullivan/Getty Images
吉姆·斯泰尔(Jim Steyer)去年与希拉里·克林顿(Hillary Clinton)合作。摄影:贾斯汀·沙利文/盖蒂图片

But is Facebook to blame for racism and hate speech? Is it the job of communication forums to police content? Until relatively recently, the social media giants have done a very effective job of presenting themselves as disinterested platform providers, no more liable for what takes place on their sites than a phone company is responsible for the conversations that occur between two callers. Using section 230 of the 1996 Communications Decency Act to make its case, Silicon Valley companies have successfully passed themselves off as internet service providers rather than publishers, which means they are not legally liable for user content. Steyer says it has become his “crusade” to remove this protection from companies like Facebook. “They’re the biggest publishers in the world,” he complains, “but they’re seen as utilities.”
但是Facebook是否需要为种族主义和仇恨言论负责呢?传播论坛的工作难道需要像警察一样工作么?直到最近,社交媒体巨头们还做出了一件非常有效的工作,它把自己描述成一个中立的平台提供商,他们不必为网站上发生的事情负责,就像电话公司不必为两个通话者之间的对话负责一样。根据1996年《通信规范法》第230条,硅谷公司成功地将自己伪装成互联网服务提供商而不是出版商,这意味着他们对用户内容不负有法律责任。斯泰尔说,斯特耶尔说,取消对Facebook这样的公司的这种保护已经成为他的“十字军”。他抱怨说:“它们是世界上最大的出版商,但它们被视为公用事业。”

A complicating factor – and one on which SHFP is applying pressure – is that social media, in particular Facebook, has eaten up most of the advertising revenue that traditional media, operating with all the restrictions and responsibilities that publishing entails, long depended upon. This economic component is just one part of a complex jigsaw of interlocking issues and causes that Steyer passionately maps out. It’s no coincidence, he argues, that the growth in unregulated social media has been accompanied by a growth in “authoritarian populism”.
一个复杂的因素——也是SHFP施加压力的一个因素——是社交媒体,尤其是Facebook,已经‘吃掉’了传统媒体长期以来依赖的大部分广告收入,而传统媒体在运营过程中,面临着出版所带来的种种限制和责任。这种经济因素只是错综复杂的连环问题种的一部分,也是斯泰尔热衷于这项计划的原因。他认为,不受监管的社交媒体的增长伴随着“威权民粹主义”的增长,这一现象并非仅仅出于巧合。

He points to social media manipulation, electoral subversion, Russian dark ops and libertarian apologists. And he has little truck for the defence, made by Clegg, that as over 100 billion messages are posted on Facebook’s services each day, it’s impossible to capture every piece of hate speech (Clegg claims almost 90% of it is removed before it is reported).
他指出社交媒体操纵,选举的颠覆,俄罗斯的黑暗行动和自由主义的辩护者。克莱格认为,由于每天有超过1000亿条信息在Facebook上发布,要捕捉每一条仇恨言论是不可能的(克莱格声称,几乎90%的仇恨言论在被报道之前就被删除了)。

“Don’t tell me they can’t figure that out,” says Steyer. “They’re a trillion-dollar company. If they really wanted to, they could completely clean up that platform.”
“不要告诉我,他们无法解决这个问题,”斯泰尔说。“他们是一家价值万亿美元的公司。如果他们真的愿意,他们可以彻底清理这个平台。”

SHFP maintains that Facebook not only allows too much hate speech, but also has chosen Breitbart News as a “trusted news source” and has made the right-wing news website The Daily Caller a “fact-checker” (one of the third-party entities that review the accuracy of stories on Facebook). Both publications, says SPFH, have “records of working with known white nationalists.”
SHFP坚持认为Facebook不仅允许太多的仇恨言论,而且选择Breitbart News作为“可信的新闻来源”,并使右翼新闻网站the Daily Caller成为“事实核查者”(审查Facebook上报道准确性的第三方机构之一)。SPFH说,这两个出版者都有“与知名白人民族主义者共事的记录”。

SPFH also admonishes Facebook for not actively helping to get out the vote. Is that their responsibility too?
SPFH还批评Facebook没有积极帮助拉票。这也是他们的责任吗?

“I didn’t put that there,” Steyer says, before accusing Facebook of allowing voter suppression messages aimed at African Americans. Clegg made a commitment on Thursday that “every Facebook user of voting age in the US will be given information, prominently displayed on the top of their News Feed, on how to register to vote”.
在指责Facebook允许针对非裔美国人的压制选民的信息发布之前,斯泰尔说:“我没有把这些放在计划里。”克莱格在周四做出承诺,“在美国,每一个达到投票年龄的Facebook用户都将获得如何注册投票的信息,这些信息将显示在他们的新闻提要顶部的显著位置。”

Nevertheless for Steyer, the company’s political leanings are clear to see. “Zuckerberg has his thumb on the scale for Trump,” he says.
尽管如此,斯泰尔仍然认为,该公司的政治倾向是显而易见的。“扎克伯格在对待特朗普的天平上有自己的态度,”他说。

Referring to the private dinners held between the Facebook chief and Donald Trump, and attended by the Trump-supporting libertarian billionaire and Facebook board member, Peter Thiel, Steyer believes the Facebook hierarchy has allowed the president to use “dishonest ads and misinformation” and spread hatred. Thiel last week let it be known that he won’t be backing Trump’s presidential campaign this year because of the economic damage wrought by the Covid-19 pandemic.
谈到Facebook首席执行官与唐纳德•特朗普(Donald Trump)举行的私人晚宴,以及支持特朗普的自由派亿万富翁、Facebook董事会成员彼得•蒂尔(Peter Thiel)出席的晚宴,施泰尔(Steyer)认为,Facebook的层级体系允许总统使用“不诚实的广告和虚假信息”并传播仇恨。泰尔上周表示,由于Covid-19疫情造成的经济损失,他今年将不会支持川普今年的总统竞选。

Amid the Black Lives Matter protests, Twitter placed warnings on some of Trump’s tweets, including the line, notorious for its racist echoes, “when the looting starts, the shooting starts”.
在“黑人的命也是命”(Black Lives Matter)抗议活动中,Twitter对特朗普的某些推文发布了警告,包括一句因带有种族主义色彩而臭名昭著的警句:“抢劫开始,开枪就开始”。

Trump put the same message on Facebook and Instagram without any intervention. Zuckerberg said while he disagreed with Trump’s language, democratic accountability meant that the president’s words should be available for scrutiny.
特朗普在没有任何干预的情况下,在Facebook和Instagram上发布了同样的信息。扎克伯格表示,虽然他不同意川普的言论,但民主问责制意味着总统的言论应该接受审查。

“They’ve permitted him to have violence and hate…” says Steyer, before trailing off.
“他们允许他有暴力和仇恨……”在离开之前,斯泰尔这样说到。

Having grown more animated in his denunciations, he is suddenly aware of moving too far from the stated agenda, and promptly issues a reminder that the campaign is politically nonpartisan. “It’s not Trump we’re focused on. It’s hate, misinformation and racism. All the platforms have responsibility, but the biggest offender is Facebook.”
他在谴责中变得更加活跃,突然意识到自己偏离了既定的议程,并迅速提醒人们,这次竞选在政治上是无党派的。“然而我们关注的并不是特朗普。而是是仇恨、错误信息和种族主义。在这里,所有的平台都有责任,但最大的违法者是Facebook。”

Ultimately, he would like to see Facebook, which owns WhatsApp and Instagram, broken up and subject to the same publishing guidelines as the old media on whose content it trades. But that, he concedes, will be a long struggle.
最终,他希望看到拥有WhatsApp和Instagram的Facebook被拆分,并与其遵守与其交易内容的传统媒体一样的发布准则。但他承认,这将是一个漫长的斗争。

“I’ll be doing this for many years to come. I’m a young man, I like my job, and unlike my brother, I’m not going to be running for president. I look at this as a mission.”
“我还会为此奋斗很多年。我是一个年轻人,我喜欢我的工作,与我的兄弟不同,我不会竞选总统。我会将这件事情视为一项使命。”