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Valves will keep you more comfortable, but endanger those around you
气门会让你更舒适,但会把你周围的人置于危险

In some states and major cities, it’s now mandatory to wear a mask in public to prevent the spread of COVID-19. That mask could be anything from a handkerchief to a designer cotton mask to a full-blown N95 respirator, so long as you have something between your mouth and nose and the world around you.
在一些州和主要城市,现在在公共场所必须戴口罩,防止新冠病毒的传播。只要可以隔绝你的鼻子、嘴巴和周围的世界,那口罩可以是任何东西:手帕、棉质的设计面具到成熟的N95口罩。

But in California’s Bay Area, there’s a new stipulation: You can wear any style of mask you want, so long as it doesn’t have a valve in it. What? Why? Because a mask with a valve may protect you from some pathogens in the air, but it doesn’t protect the people around you from your own breath.
但在加州的海湾地区,有个新规定:只要口罩没有呼吸阀,你可以戴任何风格的口罩。什么?!为什么?因为带呼吸阀的口罩可以保护你免受空气中病原体的危害,但不能使你周围的人免受你呼吸的危害。

Let us explain.
让我们解释一下。

What Is a Mask Valve?
什么是口罩的呼吸阀?

Some masks and respirators have a little plastic piece embedded in the fabric. It’s a one-way valve. That means it closes when you breathe in, so pathogens can’t get in through it. But when you breathe out, this valve opens, creating a doorway for your exhalation to leave the mask.
一些口罩和呼吸器中嵌入了一点塑料,这种是单向阀的口罩。带呼吸阀的口罩在你吸气时呼吸阀会关闭,阻隔病原体的进入,但当你呼气时,你可以通过呼吸阀呼吸地更顺畅。

3M(TM) Particulate Respirator 8210V, N95. Photo: 3M‌‌ 3M颗粒呼吸口罩 8210V, N95, 图片:3M

Why Do Public Safety Officials Care?
为什么公共安全官员需要关心这点?

When you wear a mask with a valve, a significant portion of your exhalations are entirely unfiltered. A normal cotton mask is far from perfect at capturing virus particles that you might inhale or exhale. (Surgical masks were originally invented to protect patients from coughing and sneezing, not pathogens from the air!) But when you add the valve, you aren’t even filtering your breath with cotton. Your mouth is essentially an open exhaust.
当你戴着带呼吸阀的口罩时,你呼气中的很大一部分是完全未过滤的。普通的棉质面具在捕获可能吸入或呼出的病毒颗粒方面远不完美。(外科口罩最初是为了保护患者免于咳嗽和打喷嚏而发明的,而不是为了隔绝空气中的病原体。)但是当你添加了呼吸阀,你甚至都没用棉花来过滤你的呼吸。你的嘴巴实际上是张开的嘴巴。

Why Do Any Masks Have Valves in the First Place?
为什么口罩首先都带有呼吸阀?

Surgical masks have been around for over 100 years, and they weren’t designed with valves. The N95 respirator is a relatively new invention, introduced in the 1970s, and it was brought to market largely in response to a need in industrial America rather than medicine.
外科口罩已有100多年的历史了,最初设计时并不带呼吸阀。N95口罩是一项较新的发明,在1970年代引入,它上市是为了响应美国工业的需求而不是医药行业。

So an N95 mask comes in two flavors, with and without valves.
所以N95口罩有两种选择,有呼吸阀的和无呼吸阀的。

Early respirators were designed to be used in factories and coal mines. They filtered particulate matter, aka dust, from the air that would be harmful to breathe in. But wearing a respirator can be a miserable experience. It traps heat and vapor from your mouth. That’s why these industrial respirators had valves, so that it kept the wearer cooler and more comfortable while working a long shift, Nikki McCullough, an occupational health and safety leader at 3M, explained to me last month. If people were to breathe out flu germs in a coal mine, the coal would be just fine!
早期口罩是为了工厂和煤矿厂使用而设计。它们从空气中过滤掉了有害的颗粒物质,也就是灰尘。但是戴上呼吸器会很痛苦。它会从你的嘴中吸收热量和蒸气。3M的职业健康和安全负责人Nikki McCullough 上个月向我解释说,这就是工业呼吸器会带有呼吸阀,这是为了让佩戴者在长时间工作的同时也凉爽和舒适。如果人们在煤矿中呼出了流感,而煤矿也会没事!

To this day, industrial N95 respirators have valves. Hardware stores sell N95s with valves (or they did when they were in stock) to the public for home improvement projects. And so a lot of the respirators out there have valves. (At the same time, many mask companies have added valves to their designs in response to COVID-19, presumably to distinguish their products.)
至今,工业N95口罩都装有呼吸阀。五金店向公众出售带有呼吸阀的N95口罩(或在有库存时出售)供家庭装修使用。因此,许多呼吸器都装有呼吸阀。(与此同时,许多面罩公司为响应新冠病毒也在其设计中增加了呼吸阀,以区别与其他产品。)

When Hospitals Adopted N95 Respirators, Did Those Versions Have Valves?
当医院采用N95口罩时,使用的版本带有呼吸阀吗?

No. N95s were historically used in factories, but in the 1990s, with the rise of AIDS and a related outbreak of tuberculosis, doctors were looking for a new level of airborne protection, since tuberculosis is highly contagious through the air. That’s when the medical community bought into N95s and created its own standards for these respirators. The big difference? The medical community mandated no valves, so healthcare workers didn’t get the people around them sick.
N95口罩曾在工厂中使用,但在1990年代,随着艾滋病毒的兴起和相关结核病的爆发,自结核病在空气中会高度传染以来,医生一直在寻求在空气中更有效的防护。那时,医学界购入N95口罩并为这些呼吸器制定了一套标准。有什么大不同?医学界禁止使用呼吸阀,这样医护人员不会感染到周围的人。

To this day, the CDC recommends hospitals not use N95s with valves. “Respirators with exhalation valves should not be used in situations where a sterile field must be maintained (e.g., during an invasive procedure in an operating or procedure room) because the exhalation valve allows unfiltered exhaled air to escape into the sterile field,” it writes.
迄今为止,CDC 建议医院不要使用带呼吸阀的N95口罩。该报告写道:“在不是无菌区域的地方,不应使用带呼吸阀的口罩。(例如,在手术室进行手术期间),因为呼气阀会使未经过滤的呼气逸出,从而污染无菌区域。” 。

Not really! Yes, if you have a mask with a valve, you are protecting yourself as well as you would be if you wore a mask without a valve. There’s no difference in personal protection according to anything published in the CDC or elsewhere. But if you have a mask with a valve, you’re not really protecting those around you, which is at least half of the point of wearing a cotton mask in the first place.
并不是的!是的,根据CDC或其他地方发布的内容显示,不管你戴的是带呼吸阀的口罩,还是没有呼吸阀的口罩都可以保护自己。但是,如果你戴的是带呼吸阀的口罩,那么你实际上并不能真正保护周围的人,而戴上棉口罩可以多保护至少的一倍的人。

The reason we all need to wear masks is that we can all be infected with COVID-19 and not know it for weeks before showing symptoms, if at all. Doctors have also tracked occasions where people have tested positive, negative, and then positive again. There is clearly a whole lot we don’t know about COVID-19. But given that we’re reaching the consensus that this pandemic can spread through the air, your mask should treat filtering as a two-way street.
我们都需要戴口罩的原因是,我们都会被新冠病毒感染而且病毒有数周的潜伏期。医生还追踪了那些检测为阳性和先是阴性、又是阳性的人。显然,我们对新冠病毒的了解还不深,但鉴于我们已达成共识:这种流行病会在空气中传播,而你的口罩既会过滤呼进的气,也会过滤呼出的气。