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There are a significant number of studies under way into potential treatments for Covid-19.
目前正针对新冠病毒进行大量的潜在治疗方法研究。

And some progress has been made in the search for effective medicines.
在寻找有效药物方面已取得了一些进展。

What work is being done to find treatments?
在寻找治疗方法方面,正在做什么?

More than 150 different drugs are being researched around the world. Most are existing drugs that are being trialled against the virus.
世界各地正在研究150多种不同的药物,大多数是正在试用的针对这种病毒的药物。

 The World Health Organization (WHO) has launched the Solidarity trial aimed at assessing the most promising treatments
世界卫生组织(WHO)为评估最有潜力的治疗方法,已启动“团结试验”。

 The UK says its Recovery trial is the the world's biggest, with more than 11,000 patients taking part. One of the drugs it is looking at - dexamethasone - has been shown to help save the lives of patients seriously ill with coronavirus.
英国说他们的康复试验是世界上最大的试验,有11,000多名患者参加。他们正研究的一种药物-地塞米松-已被证明可以挽救重度冠状病毒患者的生命。

 And multiple research centres around the world are attempting to use survivors' blood as a treatment
世界各地的多个研究中心都在尝试用幸存者的血液作为治疗方法

What types of drugs might work?
什么类型的药物可能有效?

There are three broad approaches being investigated:
 Antiviral drugs that directly affect the coronavirus's ability to thrive inside the body
 Drugs that can calm the immune system - patients become seriously ill when their immune system overreacts and starts causing collateral damage to the body
 Antibodies, either from survivors' blood or made in a lab, that can attack the virus
有三种方法正广泛被研究:

  1. 直接影响冠状病毒在体内茁壮成长的抗毒药物
  2. 可以使免疫系统平静的药物——免疫系统过度反应并开始对身体造成损伤时,患者会患重病
  3. 从幸存者血液中提取或在实验室研制出的可抵抗病毒的抗体

What are the most promising coronavirus drugs?
什么是最有潜力的抗新冠病毒的药物?

Dexamethasone, the first drug shown to save the lives of people with Covid-19, has been hailed as a breakthrough.
地塞米松是第一个被证明可以挽救感染新冠病毒患者的药物,被誉为是项突破。

Initial findings showed the low-cost steroid cut the risk of death by a third for patients on ventilators and a fifth for those on oxygen.
最初的发现表明,低成本的类固醇将使用呼吸机的患者死亡风险降低了三分之一,使用氧气的患者死亡风险降低了五分之一。

Coronavirus infection triggers inflammation as the body tries to fight it off.
当人体试图抵抗冠状病毒时,会引发炎症。

This can prompt the immune system to go into overdrive, and it's this reaction that can prove fatal. Dexamethasone damps down this response.
这可能会使免疫系统超速运转,而这种反应可能会致命。而地塞米松会减弱这种反应。

What is dexamethasone and how does it work?
什么是地塞米松,它是怎么起作用的?

Clinical trials of remdesivir, an antiviral drug originally developed to treat Ebola, have also been encouraging.
最初开发用于治疗埃博拉的药物瑞德西韦的临床试验结果也令人鼓舞。

A US-led trial of more than 1,000 people worldwide found remdesivir cut the duration of symptoms from 15 days to 11. Some were given the drug and others were given a placebo (dummy) treatment.
由美国领导进行的一项由全球超过1000人进行的试验结果发现,瑞德西韦将症状的持续时长从15天减少至11天。一些患者接受了该药物的治疗,另一些患者接受了(虚拟)安慰剂的治疗。

It is one of the four drugs in the Solidarity trial and its manufacturer, Gilead, is also organising trials.
它是“团结试验”中的四种药物之一,并且它的制造商吉利德(Gilead)也正在组织临床试验。

But, although remdesivir may aid recovery - and possibly stop people having to be treated in intensive care - studies have so far not given any clear indication whether it can prevent deaths from coronavirus.
但是,尽管瑞德西韦可以帮助康复-并有可能阻止人们被重症监护-但是迄今为止,尚未有明确迹象表明它可以预防冠状病毒死亡。

It is thought that antivirals may be more effective in the early stages, and immune drugs later in the disease.
人们认为抗病毒药可能在疾病早期更有效,而免疫药物则在疾病后期更有效。

The UK government has made both dexamethasone and remdesivir available on the NHS.
英国政府已在NHS上提供了地塞米松和瑞德西韦。

However, the US has bought almost all of Gilead's forthcoming supply of the drug. The Department of Health and Human Services says it has secured 500,000 doses, which amounts to 100% of Gilead's production in July, 90% of it in August and 90% in September.
但是,美国已经购买了吉利德即将供应的所有药物。卫生与公共服务部表示,它们已获得了500000剂量,占吉利德7月份产量的100%,8月份产量的90%和9月份产量的90%。

Gilead has also donated an unknown quantity of remdesivir to South Korea.
吉利德还向韩国捐赠了数量未知的瑞德西韦。

Can HIV drugs treat coronavirus?
艾滋药物可以治疗冠状病毒吗?

There has been much talk, but little evidence, that a pair of HIV drugs - lopinavir and ritonavir - could be effective at treating coronavirus.
有很多话题,但很少有证据表明,一对艾滋病毒药物(洛匹那韦和利托那韦)可以有效治疗冠状病毒。

There has been some evidence they can work in the laboratory, but studies in people have been disappointing.
有一些证据表明它们可以在实验室中有效果,但是临床实验却令人失望。

The combination did not improve recovery, reduce deaths or lower levels of the virus in patients with serious Covid-19.
这种组合在重症新冠患者身上,不能帮助提高恢复率,降低死亡率或降低病毒水平。

However, as the trial was conducted with extremely sick patients (nearly a quarter died) it may have been too late in the infection for the drugs to work.
但是,由于试验是在重症患者(将近四分之一死亡)身上进行的,所以可能此时用药已为时已晚。

Can malaria drugs stop coronavirus?
疟疾药物可以阻止冠状病毒吗?

Malaria drugs are part of both the Solidarity and Recovery trials.
疟疾药物是“团结与恢复试验”中的一部分。

Chloroquine, and a related derivative, hydroxychloroquine, may have antiviral and immune-calming properties. Hydroxychloroquine is also used as a treatment for rheumatoid arthritis, because it can help regulate the immune system.
氯喹和相关衍生物羟化氯喹可能具有抗病毒和免疫镇定作用。羟化氯喹还可以用于治疗类风湿性关节炎,因为它可以帮助调节免疫系统。

The drugs were thrust into the spotlight as potential coronavirus therapies, largely because of claims made by President Trump, but there is still limited evidence on their effectiveness.
这些药物作为潜在的冠状病毒疗法而备受关注,很大程度上是因为特朗普的宣称,但对于它们的有效性,仍证据有限。

Early laboratory tests showed it can inhibit the coronavirus, but concerns emerged about its use against the disease.
早期的实验室结果表明,它可以抑制冠状病毒,但对人们用它治疗病毒表示担忧。

The UK's Recovery trial, run by the University of Oxford, found that hydroxychloroquine does not work as a treatment for Covid-19, and it was pulled from that trial.
由牛津大学进行的“恢复”试验发现,羟化氯喹不能用作为新冠病毒的治疗药物,所以它被撤出试验。

The WHO had previously suspended its global trials of hydroxychloroquine following a large-scale study in the Lancet which found the drug's use can cause heart problems, and actually increased the likelihood of death.
在《柳叶刀》上进行大规模研究后,发现该药物的使用会引起心脏问题,并增加死亡可能性,之后世界卫生组织此前就暂停了羟化氯喹的全球试验。
However, that study was subsequently discredited, and on 30 June, the UK's Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) said that Oxford University can resume its hydroxychloroquine trials.
但是,该研究随后被抹黑了。6月30日,英国药品和保健产品监管局(MHRA)表示,牛津大学可以恢复它的羟化氯喹试验。

Researchers are keen to continue exploring whether the drug might prevent infections.
研究人员渴望继续探索这种药物是否可以防止感染。

Can survivors' blood treat coronavirus?
幸存者的血可以治疗冠状病毒吗?

People who survive an infection should have antibodies in their blood that can attack the virus.
从感染中幸存的人血液里应该带有可以攻击该病毒的抗体。

The idea is you take the blood plasma (the part which contains the antibodies) and give that to a sick patient as a therapy.
这个想法是你获取血浆(包含抗体的部分)并将它给病患作为治疗。

The US has already treated 500 patients with what's known as "convalescent plasma", and other countries are getting involved too.
美国已经用所谓的“恢复期血浆”治疗了500名患者,其他国家也参与其中。

How long until we have a cure?
我们要多久才能有治愈方法?

It is too soon to know when we might have a drug that can treat the coronavirus.
现在还不知道什么时候我们可以拥有可以治疗冠状病毒的药物。

However, we should start to get the results of trials in the next few months. This is much earlier than we will know whether a vaccine (which protects against infection rather than treat it) is effective.
但是,我们应该在接下来的几个月里得到试验结果。这比我们知道(预防感染而不是治疗)的疫苗是否有效早得多。

This is because doctors are testing drugs that have already been developed and are known to be safe enough to use, whereas vaccines researchers are starting from scratch.
这是因为医生正在测试已开发出来的足够安全的药物,而疫苗研究人员则是从头开始。

Some completely new, experimental, coronavirus drugs are also being tested in the laboratory but are not yet ready for human tests.
一些全新的、实验性的、冠状病毒药物也正在实验室中进行测试,但尚未准备好进行人体测试。

Why do we need a treatment?
我们为什么需要治疗方法?

The most obvious reason for wanting a treatment is it will save lives, but it could also allow further lockdown measures to be lifted.
想要治疗方法的最明显原因是它可以挽救生命,但也可以取消隔离。

Having an effective treatment would, in essence, make coronavirus a milder disease.
本质上,有效的治疗方法会使冠状病毒成为一种较温和的疾病。

If it stopped people who were admitted to hospital from needing ventilation, then there would be less risk of intensive care units being overwhelmed, so controls on people's lives may not need to be as strict.
如果它能帮助住院病人不需要呼吸机,那么就会降低重症监护爆满的风险,对人们生活的控制也就不需那么严格。