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Although many people haven't wrapped their minds around 5G mobile technology yet, Samsung has already started talking about 6G.
尽管许多人还没对5G移动技术深入了解,但三星已经开始讨论6G网络了。

In a report released Tuesday, the South Korean electronics giant reveals its 6G vision of the future, including technical and societal megatrends, new services, requirements, candidate technologies, and an expected timeline of standardization.
在周二发布的报告中,这家韩国电子巨头透露了它对6G网络的愿景,包括了技术趋势、社会趋势、新的服务、社会需求、候选技术和预计的标准化时间表。

"While 5G commercialization is still in its initial stage, it's never too early to start preparing for 6G because it typically takes around 10 years from the start of research to commercialization of a new generation of communications technology," Sunghyun Choi, head of Samsung's Advanced Communications Research Center, explained in a statement.
虽然5G的商业化仍处于起步阶段,但开始为6G做准备并没有为时过早,这是因为从开始研究到新一代通信技术的商业化通常会需要10年左右的时间。”三星高级通信研究中心的负责人崔崇贤在一份声明中这样解释。

In its report, Samsung predicted that earliest commercialization of 6G could occur as early as 2028, with mass commercialization taking place roughly two years after that.
三星在其报告中预测,6G的商业化最早可在2028年进行,之后的两年会进行大规模的商业化。

The standards groups that develop protocols for mobile telecommunications, known as the 3rd Generation Partnership Project, or 3GPP, roll new standards about every decade or so, noted Kevin Krewell, a principal analyst in the San Jose, Calif. offices of Tirias Research, a high-tech research and advisory firm.
为手机移动通信开大协议的组织,被称为是第三代合作伙伴计划,或3GPP。圣何塞(位于加州的一家高科技研究和资讯公司)的首席分析师Kevin Krewell指出,大约每十年都会有新的网络标准。

"Assuming there's no big hang up in committees, the Samsung prediction seems about right," he told TechNewsWorld.
他表示“假设委员会没有阻止,三星的预测似乎是正确的。”


Leaving 5G in the Dust
让5G尘埃落定

Samsung also sees the technology taking a huge performance leap over 5G networks, which are currently barely getting off the ground. Peak data rates for 6G will be 1,000 gigabits per second, or about 50 times that of 5G, and air latency -- the time between when an instruction is issued and when it's performed -- of 100 microseconds, or one-tenth the latency of 5G.
三星还认为,6G会比5G网络有大的跃进,虽然5G网络才刚刚起步。6G的峰值速率是每秒1000GB,大约是5G的50倍,而6G的延迟(发出指令和相应指令之间的时间)是100微妙,是5G的十分之一。

"The goals of 6G will be to take 5G to the next level of magnitude on bandwidth and latency," Krewell said.
Krewell说“6G的目标是将5G在带宽和延迟方面带到一个新水平。”

"The overall goal is to make 6G connectivity even more reliable and robust than 5G, allowing more connected services, such as radio connected drones and real-time augmented reality glasses," he continued.
他继续表示“整体目标是让6G的连接性比5G更稳固可靠,从而可以连接更多的服务,比如连接无人机的无线电和实时增强现实的眼镜。”

A comparison of key performance requirements between 6G and 5G (Credit: Samsung)‌‌6G和5G关键性能的比较。(来源:三星)

Reliability will be a sensitive issue if 6G is used to control autonomous vehicles, observed Jack E. Gold, founder and principal analyst at J.Gold Associates, an IT advisory company in Northborough, Mass.
马萨诸塞州的IT咨询公司J.Gold Associates的创始人兼首席分析师Jack E.Gold指出,如果把6G用于自动驾驶,网络的稳定性会是个敏感问题。

"6G will need to expand on reliability because if you're using things like autonomous vehicles, you can't have signals going away and causing car crashes," he told TechNewsWorld.
他表示:“ 如果你使用的是自动驾驶汽车,6G就需要提高网络稳定性,这样就不会因为没信号而发生车祸。”

In its report, Samsung maintained that 6G will be used for advanced services, such as immersive extended reality, high-fidelity mobile hologram and use of digital "twins" in virtual worlds.
在这份报告中,三星坚称6G将用于高级服务,如沉浸式地拓展现实,高保真的移动全息照相以及在虚拟世界中的“数字双胞胎”。

Use Cases
用例

Predicting use cases for 6G may be a little premature, however.
但是,预测6G的用例还为时过早。

"It's hard to know what will be the technology that drives the adoption of 6G," Krewell said. "In 2010, did we know that AR and VR, autonomous vehicles, and drones would be high on our list of uses for 5G?"
Krewell说“很难知道什么技术会推动6G的采用”,“在2010年,我们知道5G可以广泛应用于AR、VR、自动驾驶和无人机吗?”

"It's really hard to conceptualize what the use cases for 6G might be, when we're still trying to figure out the use cases for 5G," added Jason Leigh, a senior research analyst for mobility at IDC, in Framingham, Mass., a market research company.
IDC(位于马萨诸塞州的一家市场研究公司)的高级研究分析师Jason Leigh补充说:“当我们仍在试图挖掘5G的用途时,很难概念化6G的用例可能是什么。”

Nevertheless, if 6G lives up to its speed and latency specs, it could be used in a variety of ways.
不过,如果6G能够达到预测的速度和延迟规格,那有多种方式使用它。

"Features like these could support a wide range of advanced education, training and certification processes in various industries," said Charles King, the principal analyst at Pund-IT, a technology advisory firm in Hayward, Calif.
Pund-IT(一家位于加州Hayward的技术咨询公司)的首席分析师Charles King说:“这些功能可以支持各个行业的高级教育、培训和认证流程。”

"They could also enhance remote support for healthcare and other hard to come by services for rural communities," he told TechNewsWorld.
他表示:“这些功能还可以增强对医疗的远程支持,以及农村难以获得的其他服务。”

"Immersive applications for product and industrial design are likely," he added. "There will also likely be numerous military applications, from advanced communications to real-time battlefield analysis."
“产品和工业设计可能会有大量应用。” 他补充: “从先进的通信到实时战场分析,军事领域的应用也将有很多。”

Propagation Problems
传播问题

Because 6G will be operating in the terahertz bandwidth, it's expected to encounter problems similar to those currently facing 5G millimeter wave technology. That's acknowledged in the Samsung report.
因为6G将以太赫兹带宽运行,预计它将遇到与当前5G面临的毫米波技术类似的问题。三星的报告也承认了这点。

"To cope with the difficult propagation characteristics of THz band," the report noted, "it may be natural to enhance the massive MIMO technology that was introduced to support millimeter wave (mmWave) band in 5G. Since the THz band requires much more antennas than the mmWave band, there may be significantly more practical difficulties." MIMO -- multiple-input, multiple-output -- is a way for multiplying the capacity of a radio link.
报告指出:“为应对太赫兹频段的困难传播特性,增强为支持5G毫米波(mmWave)频段而引入的大规模MIMO(MMO多输入多输出是一种增加无线链路容量的方法)技术是很自然的。因为太赫兹频段比毫米波波段需要更多的天线,实际困难可能也更大。”

"The challenge with millimeter waves is they can only travel three blocks, and they don't penetrate doors very well," Leigh told TechNewsWorld. "When you get up to that terahertz level, those propagation issues multiply."
Leigh表示“毫米波的挑战是它只能传播三个街区,并且不能很好地穿过门,而当到达太赫兹的水平时,这些问题只会成倍出现。”

Initially, wireless carriers will likely adopt the same phase-in strategy they're using with their 5G transition when they introduce 6G. Early 6G phones will support 5G and 6G until the newer technology becomes ubiquitous.
最初,无线运营商在引入6G时或会采用与向5G过渡时相同的逐步升级策略。早期的6G手机将支持5G和6G,直到新技术真正普及为止。

"You take the best of what's already available and leverage that to take you to the next step," Gold explained. "Eventually, you reach the next step and get rid of the older stuff."
“你将充分利用现有资源,并用它们来进行下一步。” Gold解释说: “最终,你会迈出下一步并摆除掉旧东西。”

More Machines Than People
机器比人多

If 5G is any indicator, carriers could have problems selling 6G to consumers.
如果以5G为指标,运营商可能很难向消费者出售6G。

"The sell for consumers seems pretty hazy," King said. "That is, unless vendors come up with entirely new types of devices and form factors."
King说:“对消费者来说,这笔交易似乎很玄乎。”也就说,除非供应商提出了全新的设备类型和外形规格。

"Businesses which could utilize 6G features and functions to improve efficiency, lower costs or create new market opportunities seem the likeliest targets," he added.
他补充:“商业可以用6G功能来提高效率,可能它也会降低成本或创造新的市场机会。”

However, consumers may not be playing as big a role in 6G adoption as they've played in past new generation rollouts.
但是,消费者可能不会在6G的普及中,像之前的产品普及一样扮演重要的角色。

The Samsung report noted that it's expected that the number of connected devices will reach 500 billion by 2030, which is about 59 times larger than the expected world population at that time of 8.5 billion.
三星的报告指出,到2030年,连网设备的数量将达到5000亿,这是当时预期的85亿世界人口的大约59倍。

Mobile devices will take various form-factors, it continued, such as augmented reality glasses, virtual reality headsets, and hologram devices.
移动设备将以各种外形展现,如增强现实眼镜,虚拟现实耳机和全息设备。

Increasingly, it noted, machines will need to be connected by means of wireless communications. Such connected machines will include vehicles, robots, drones, home appliances, displays, smart sensors installed in various infrastructures, construction machines, and factory equipment.
它指出,越来越需要通过无线通信来连接设备,这种连接的设备将包括车辆,机器人,无人机,家用电器,显示器、安装在各种基础设施、建筑机械和工厂设备中的智能传感器。

"As the number of connected machines grows exponentially, those machines will become dominant users of 6G communications," the report maintained.
报告称:“随着连接设备数量的成倍增长,这些设备将成为6G通信的主要用户。””

"Looking back at the history of wireless communications, technologies have been developed assuming services for humans as the major driving applications," it continued. "In 5G, machines were also considered in defining requirements and developing technologies."
“回顾无线通信的历史,以人类服务为主要驾驶应用的技术已经开发出来。” 它继续表示: “在5G中,定义需求和开发技术时还考虑了机器。”

"We expect new 6G technologies have to be developed specifically to connect hundreds of billions of machines taking into account what is required for machines," it predicted.
它预测:“我们预计必须开发专门的新6G技术来连接数千亿台机器。”