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This winter, there's a good chance you might be looking for anything and everything to rid yourself of an annoying, lingering and sometimes debilitating cold.

今年冬天,你可能会用一切办法来抵御烦人、缠人、甚至有时会让人生病的寒冷。

You may want to add yogurt to your list of cold-fighting remedies.

你可能会想在自己的抗寒药物里加上酸奶。

"When it comes to yogurt specifically, I'd say there's not a lot of research that we can point to that indicates yogurt reduces symptoms of a cold," said Mickey Rubin, vice president of nutrition research for the National Dairy Council. That being said, "There are some things (in yogurt) we can point to that, in theory, would be beneficial."

国家乳业委员会营养研究副总裁Mickey Rubin说:“提到酸奶时,我想指出的是,并没有太多的研究表明酸奶可以减轻感冒症状。” 话虽这么说,“理论上讲,酸奶中的一些成分对事情还是有帮助的。”

For example, yogurt is full of probiotics, which can help boost the immune system, according to Kristi L. King, a senior registered dietitian at Texas Children's Hospital and a national spokeswoman for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.

例如,得克萨斯儿童医院的资深注册营养师兼营养学学会的国家发言人Kristi L. King说:“酸奶中富含益生菌,可以帮助增强免疫系统。”

Studies that have looked at probiotics have found promising results in terms of reducing the duration and incidence of colds. However, specific benefits can only be attributed to the actual strains studied -- which do not necessarily exist in regular, non-supplemented yogurt, according to Rubin. For example, conventional yogurt contains Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus -- two cultures that are integral to the yogurt making process, and as such are known as "starter cultures." While these are beneficial bacteria, they are not necessarily the same probiotics that have been studied in clinical trials, according to Rubin.

关于益生菌的研究已在减少感冒持续时间和发病率方面发现了可喜结果。不过,Rubin说,特定好处只能存在于实际研究的菌株中,而普通的非补充酸奶不一定含有这种菌株。比如,传统的酸奶包含了保加利亚乳杆菌和嗜热链球菌——这是酸奶制造过程中必不可少的两种培养物,所以它们也被称为“发酵剂培养物”。 Rubin说,尽管这两种菌类是有益细菌,但它们也不一定会和临床试验中所研究的益生菌相同。

"We know yogurt is a nutritious food choice and we know probiotics are beneficial to health, so including them in an overall healthy eating plan makes sense, but recommending them specifically for the common cold would be premature," said Rubin.

Rubin说:“我们知道酸奶是种有营养的食物,也知道益生菌有益健康,所以将它纳入整体的健康饮食计划中是有道理的,但为治疗普通感冒而推荐吃酸奶还尚不成熟。”

Yogurt also contains another immune booster: zinc. Research indicates that zinc can reduce the duration of cold symptoms, but the amounts of zinc needed for benefits -- at least 75 milligrams -- is much higher than the 2 milligrams present in an 8-ounce cup of yogurt.

酸奶中还含有另一种促进免疫的元素:锌。研究表明,锌能减少感冒的持续时间,但需要锌含量达到——至少75毫克,这远远高于一杯酸奶所含有的2毫克锌。

Carbohydrates in yogurt provide energy, which are important in helping you recover from a cold, according to King. And one recent study, funded by the National Dairy Council, found that when women consumed yogurt every day for nine weeks, they had reduced inflammatory markers in their blood -- findings that suggest a mechanism by which yogurt might be helpful in fighting off cold symptoms.

King说,酸奶中的碳水成分可以提供能量,这可以帮助病人从感冒中恢复。一项由美国国家乳业协会资助的研究发现,当女性坚持9周每天喝酸奶时,她们血液中的炎症参数会下降-研究表明,酸奶中可能含有一种可以帮助缓解感冒症状的成分。

"The common cold and its symptoms are an inflammatory response to the bug ... such that if yogurt or other foods reduced inflammation, it could in theory be beneficial -- but we need more research to know for sure," said Rubin.

Rubin说:“普通感冒和它产生的症状是一种因身体出现故障而出现的炎症反应……因此,如果酸奶或其他食物可以减轻炎症,理论上讲应该是有益的,但这需要我们经过更多的研究才能确定。”

The bottom line

小结

Though the ability of yogurt to help fight a cold is, at best, theoretical right now, experts say there's no good reason not to choose yogurt when you have the sniffles or difficulty swallowing.

尽管目前从理论上,最多只能说酸奶具有抗感冒的能力,但专家说,当你流鼻涕或吞咽困难时,可以选择酸奶。

"I wouldn't rely solely on yogurt to fight the cold, but in conjunction with a healthy diet, yogurt may be beneficial," said King.

King说:“我不会仅依赖于酸奶来对抗感冒,但结合健康的饮食习惯来说,酸奶可能是有益的。”

"Yogurt is smooth and goes down easy, so if you have a sore throat, or even a runny nose, it's comfortable to eat," added Rubin.

Rubin补充说:“酸奶顺滑,而且容易消化,所以如果你喉咙疼,或鼻塞,喝酸奶会很舒服。”

So choose yogurt for its soothing texture and nutritional attributes, which include calcium and vitamin D, along with possible cold fighters like zinc and probiotics -- but not necessarily as a primary therapy for a cold.

所以,因为酸奶的顺滑质地和营养属性(含有钙和维生素D,以及可以抗寒的元素,如锌和益生菌),可以选择酸奶辅助治疗感冒,但不一定要作为治疗感冒的主要疗法。

For maximum benefits, King recommends eating plain yogurt with other antioxidant-rich foods, such as berries, which contribute natural sweetness, in addition to more cold-fighting nutrients. "Pairing yogurt with blueberries or strawberries will give you an extra dose of vitamin C and antioxidants to fight the cold off," she said.

为了利益最大化,King建议你将原味酸奶和其他富含抗氧化剂的食物(如浆果)一起食用,这些食物除了具有更多的抗寒营养外,还有天然甜味。她说:“一起吃酸奶与蓝莓或草莓,可以为你提供额外的维生素C和抗氧化剂,而这些可以抵御感冒。”