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What’s the best thing to eat before a workout, game, or race?
(a) a candy bar or other sugary food 15 minutes before,
(b) a protein shake or bar 30 minutes before,
(c) a low-¬fat, high-¬carb meal or snack one to four hours before,
(d) nothing; you should fast.
先来做一道选择题:
锻炼、比赛获竞赛之前,最好吃些什么?
15分钟之前,吃一颗糖或其他一些含糖食品
30分钟之前,吃一根蛋白质奶昔或蛋白质棒
1-4个小时之前,吃一顿低脂、高碳水的饭或点心
什么都不吃,你该斋戒

The answer is usually (c), but it depends on the type, length and intensity of your activity, what you ate on previous days, your metabolism and your personal preferences. If you’re just walking briskly or cycling for 30 to 60 minutes, it doesn’t matter what you eat beforehand.
通常情况下,答案是c,但答案到底应该是什么,取决于你活动的类型、活动时长和活动强度,取决于你前一天吃的东西,你的代谢能力和你的个人偏好。如果你只是花30-60分钟快步走或骑自行车,你事先吃了什么并不会有多大影响。

But if you’re about to play singles tennis, go on a three¬-hour bike ride or run for more than an hour, what you eat before—and during—the activity can affect your performance and how you feel.
但如果你要打网球、骑3小时自行车或跑步一个多小时,你在活动之前-和活动期间吃的东西会影响你的活动表现和感觉。

It’s important to find what works best for you. There’s no magic pre¬-exercise meal, but there are some general guidelines for vigorous workouts lasting more than an hour.
找到最适合自己的东西很重要。没有神奇的运动前餐点,但对超过一小时的剧烈运动,有些一般性的指导原则。

 It’s best to eat one to four hours before the activity: the shorter the time to the event, the smaller the meal or snack should be.
 Choose foods that are high in carbs (preferably complex carbs that are not high in fiber), low in fat and moderate in protein—such as crackers, fruit, pasta or low-¬fat yogurt—and that “sit well” with you.
 The goal is to maintain blood sugar and carbohydrate stores in the body, but not have much undigested food in the stomach, which can cause indigestion, gas or other discomfort.
 最好在活动开始前1-4个小时吃东西:运动的时间越短,餐点或零食就越简单
 选择高碳水(最好是纤维不高的复合碳水)、低脂肪、适量蛋白质的食物,如坚果饼干,水果,意大利面或低脂酸奶,这些和你会很适合。
 目标是维持血糖和碳水在体内储存,但胃里不会有许多未消化的食物,因为这会引起消化不良、放屁或其他一些不舒服。


Why should athletes love carbs?
为什么运动员都喜欢碳水?

Carbohydrates are essential for athletic performance—in fact, for all physical as well as mental activity. They are the body’s major source of energy—in the form of glucose in the blood and glycogen (the stor¬age form of carbohydrates) in the muscles and liver—and are used more efficiently than proteins or fats. It’s particularly important to eat enough carbs in the hours and days before prolonged activity (though special “carb-¬loading” regimens are no longer recommended).
碳水化合物对于运动表现至关重要——实际上,它对所有的身体和智力活动也是如此。它们是身体的主要能源,转化成血液中的葡萄糖或肌肉和肝脏中的糖原(碳水化合物的储存形式)存在,比蛋白质或脂肪更为有效地利用。在长时间运动之前的几小时或几天内,吃够碳水尤为重要(尽管不再建议使用特殊的“增加碳水”的习惯)。

If you’re doing strength training, shouldn’t you eat more protein than carbs beforehand?
如果你正在进行力量训练,你不该在吃碳水前吃更多的蛋白质吗?

No, the focus should stay on high-¬carb foods. Weight lifters and endur¬ance athletes do need more protein than other people, but because of their greater food intake, they get the extra protein with little trouble. Some research has found that consuming some protein shortly after strength training can boost muscle synthesis, however.
不,重点应仍放在高碳水食物上。举重运动员和耐力运动员确实比其他人需要更多的蛋白质,这是由于他们摄入的食物量也更大,所以他们需要补充蛋白质来减少麻烦。一些研究发现,在力量训练的不久后,补充一些蛋白质可以促进肌肉合成。

What about the final hour before a workout?
锻炼前的一小时呢?

Years ago, experts advised not eating anything, especially sugary foods or drinks, shortly before exercising, since that can boost insulin levels and result in a drop in blood sugar, which could impair performance. But insulin levels go back down when you start to exercise. And the great majority of studies have found that eating carbs shortly before exercise actually improves performance or else has no effect on it.
几年前,专家建议在运动前不要吃任何东西,尤其是含糖食品或饮料,因为这会提高胰岛素水平、导致血糖下降,从而影响身体机能。但是当你开始运动后,胰岛素含量会减少。绝大多数研究发现,运动前不久吃碳水实际上可以改善运动表现,或者是对运动没影响。

Again, it depends on what you’ll be doing, what you ate earlier and what you’ll consume while exercising. If you do eat during the final hour, try a small low¬fat snack (less than 200 calories) or a lightly sugared beverage.
同样,这取决于你在做什么,你早些时候吃了什么以及你锻炼时会消耗的东西。如果你确实要在运动前一个小时内进餐,可以试试少量的低脂零食(少于200卡路里)或少量加糖的饮料。

Is it better to get your pre-¬exercise calories and nutrients from liquids than from solid foods?
锻炼前,从液体中获取锻炼需要的热量和营养比从固体食物获取更好?

Whatever works for you. It takes longer for solid foods to be digested compared to liquids, which could be a good or bad thing when you exercise, depending on the timing. But studies have generally found that it doesn’t matter whether you get your pre-¬workout calories from food or beverages.
两种获取能量的方式都可以适用于你。与液体相比,固体食物的消化时间更长,在运动时,这可能是件好事,也可能是坏事,具体取决于时间。但研究发现,不管是从食物还是饮料中获得锻炼需要的热量,都不重要。

Will fasting before exercise burn more body fat?
运动前禁食会更多地让体内脂肪燃烧吗?

No, what you eat before exercising has little or no effect on fat burning (oxidation). The body uses stored fat and carbs as fuel in varying pro¬portions, depending on the length and intensity of the activities and other variables.
不,运动前吃的东西对脂肪燃烧(氧化)影响很小或没有影响。身体根据活动时长和活动强度以及其他变量,储存不同比例的脂肪和碳水作为燃料。

Studies on fasting in athletes have produced inconsis¬tent results, and when they have found extra fat burning it is very modest. And some research has shown that people burn more fat when they eat something before exercising than when they fast. What’s more, for most people, fasting before intense or prolonged exercise will reduce energy levels and impair performance.
关于运动员禁食的研究结果尚不一致,并且他们发现,当有多余的脂肪燃烧时,这种燃烧都很适度。并且一些研究表明,与不吃东西相比,运动前吃东西会让人们燃烧更多的脂肪。更重要的是,对大多数人来说,在剧烈或长时间运动前禁食会降低能量水平并影响运动表现。

Should you eat while exercising—and what?
您在运动时应该吃饭吗?

Yes, if you’re doing prolonged events such as long¬ distance running or cycling. For most people, a few hours of sustained, vigorous activity will deplete their stored carbs, resulting in weakness, fatigue, and/or pain—what’s known as “hitting the wall.” So it’s important to eat small high-¬carb (again, low in fat and fiber) snacks to maintain blood sugar and fuel your muscles and brain. You can also get the carbs from beverages.
是的,如果你要进行长时间的运动,如长距离跑步或骑车。对大多数人而言,持续数小时的剧烈运动会耗尽体内储存的碳水,导致身体虚弱,疲倦或疼痛,这就是所谓的“虚脱”。因此,为维持血糖、并肌肉和大脑提供能量而吃高碳水的零食是重要的。你还可以从饮料中获取碳水。

What's the best way to stay hydrated?
保持水分的最佳方法是什么?

If you exercise moderately for less than an hour, all you need to do is drink when you’re thirsty—and water is fine. But for prolonged exercise, especially in hot weather, drink plenty of fluids.
如果你适度运动少于一个小时,那你要做的就是口渴时才喝水,喝水就够了。但如果你要长时间运动,尤其是在炎热天气下运动,请多喝水。

The American College of Sports Medicine recommends drinking fluids (about 15 ounces for a 165-¬pound person) at least four hours beforehand. Also drink at regular inter¬vals during long workouts, even if you are not thirsty, and drink adequately afterwards. For such endurance exercise, beverages with low to moderate sugar content as well as some potassium and sodium, such as sports drinks, are recommended.

美国运动医学学院建议至少在运动前四个小时就饮用液体,即使你不渴,也请在长时间锻炼期间定时喝水,结束后再补充足够的水。对于这种耐力运动,建议使用含糖量低或中等的饮料,以及一些钾和钠,例如运动饮料就比较推荐。