Two years after humans last landed a probe on Mars, both the United States and China are launching missions to the red planet this month and setting up a new arena for their growing rivalry.

Weather permitting, China's Tianwen-1 is expected to blast off Thursday from Hainan Island in the country's south, though the government has yet to publicly confirm the date. NASA's Perseverance rover is scheduled to launch on July 30. Both probes are expected to reach Mars in February 2021.

Perseverance aims to answer questions about the potential for life on Mars, including seeking signs of habitable conditions in the planet's ancient past and looking for evidence of microbial life. The rover has a drill which can be used to collect core samples from rocks and set them aside to potentially be collected and examined by a later mission.

If successful, Perseverance will be the seventh probe NASA has landed on Mars, and the fourth rover. Curiosity, which landed on the red planet in 2012, is still sending back data about the Martian surface.
如果成功,恒心漫游者计划将是NASA 登陆火星的第七次探测,也是第四次对火星的探测。于2012年降落在火星上的好奇号,至今仍会发回火星表面的相关数据。

Tianwen-1, whose name means "Quest for Heavenly Truth," is China's first mission to Mars. The probe will orbit the planet before landing a rover on the surface, with the hope that it can gather important information about the Martian soil, geological structure, environment, atmosphere, and search for signs of water.

In a paper last week, the scientific team behind Tianwen-1 said the probe is "going to orbit, land and release a rover all on the very first try, and coordinate observations with an orbiter. No planetary missions have ever been implemented in this way."

By contrast, NASA sent multiple orbiters to Mars before ever attempting a landing. Pulling off the landing is a far more difficult task.

"If successful, it would signify a major technical breakthrough," the Chinese team wrote in the journal Nature.

Space race

In their paper, the Tianwen-1 scientists noted the chance for international collaboration to "advance our knowledge of Mars to an unprecedented level." It's not only their own probe and NASA's that are arriving at the planet next year, but also the United Arab Emirates' Hope Probe, which blasted off on Sunday. The Hope Probe is the Arab world's first interplanetary mission.
论文中,天问一号的科学家指出了国际合作的机会,会“将我们对火星的了解提高到前所未有的水平”。明年,不仅是天问一号和恒心漫游者会到达地球,还有刚爆炸了的阿拉伯联合国的Hope探测器。Hope探测器是阿拉伯世界(Arab world)的第一个行星际任务。

Scientists working for NASA and China's space agency have enjoyed a collegiate relationship in the past. They've collaborated on the International Space Station, and congratulated each other on successful missions, such as China's landing of a probe on the far side of the Moon, the first country to ever do so.

But for all the insistence of those involved to the contrary, the space race is inescapably political. NASA's early missions, particularly its historic landing of humans on the Moon in 1969, were fueled by the Cold War rivalry between Washington and the Soviet Union.


This photo taken on July 17, 2020 shows a Long March 5 rocket being transferred before a planned launch in Wenchang in China's southern Hainan province.

Beijing, for its part, is well aware of the potential prestige it could gain by outstripping the US in space. If Tianwen-1 is successful, it has plans to eventually send a manned mission to Mars.

As well as the Mars mission, Beijing is also planning to launch a permanent space station by 2022, and is looking at sending a manned probe to the Moon possibly in the 2030s.

This program is building on the findings from China's recent missions to the Moon, particularly the Yutu rovers, the first of which had to abandon its mission half way into the three-month timescale due to a breakdown. Yutu-2, which landed on the far-side of the Moon last year, has been a huge success.

"Our overall goal is that, by around 2030, China will be among the major space powers of the world," Wu Yanhua, deputy chief of the National Space Administration, said in 2016.
国家航天局副局长吴彦华在2016年表示: “我们的总体目标是到2030年左右,中国将成为世界上主要的航天大国。”


A rendering of NASA's Perseverance rover on Mars. The probe is due to arrive at the red planet in February 2021.

Mission to Mars

China came late to the space race. And while it has made incredible strides in recent decades, outpacing NASA — at least in terms of bragging rights, if not scientifically — would require something spectacular, like landing a human on Mars.

But there is a reason that since 1972, all space exploration has been carried out by robots. Not only are they cheaper, they're also far longer-lasting and more durable: No country wants to be the first to have an astronaut die on another planet.

Landing robotic probes on Mars is hard enough, given the planet's atmospheric conditions. Getting a human there safely might be next to impossible.

But this hasn't stopped politicians speculating about a manned mission to the red planet. Early in his term, US President Donald Trump authorized NASA to "lead an innovative space exploration program to send American astronauts back to the moon, and eventually Mars."
但是,这并没有阻止政客们猜测有人对这颗红色星球执行任务。任期初期,美国总统唐纳德·特朗普(Donald Trump)就授权NASA “领导一项创新的太空探索计划,将美国宇航员送到月球,最后再送到火星”。